Category Archives: Treatment

Drugged Driving Statistics

Driving under the influence is one of the most preventable crimes in the United States. Especially in the age of ride-hailing services and apps, it’s easy to avoid drugged or drunk driving, yet statistics from the Bureau of Transportation report that three people are killed in alcohol-related crashes every two hours. In the same survey, the Bureau cites that in 2010, 4 million American adults said they’d driven drunk at least once.

Many people are aware of the effects that alcohol and illicit drugs can have on the human body, but many legal and doctor-prescribed drugs also affect a person’s driving ability, making accidents far more likely to occur. If there is any intoxicant present in a person’s body, they are considered to be driving under the influence. Not only is it illegal to drive high or drunk, possibly resulting in getting a DUI citation or arrest, but it’s also incredibly dangerous. Drugged driving can bring harm to more than just the user, and the ramifications of doing so can have an impact on many people’s lives.

What Is Drugged Driving?

Drugged driving is driving under the influence of any intoxicant whatsoever. Alcohol and marijuana use are two of the leading causes of DUIs in the United States, but drugged driving is not limited just to these two substances. Illegal drugs like heroin, methamphetamine, LSD and cocaine significantly impair someone’s ability to drive, and prescribed pharmaceuticals of any sort can do the same. Even some store-bought or over-the-counter medications can alter a person’s consciousness enough to turn driving into a more dangerous activity.

Most people know the moral and legal consequences of drunk driving, but they may be unaware that even medication prescribed by a doctor can result in an accident or DUI if misused. It’s wise to ask your doctor if a medication that he or she prescribes to you will affect your ability to drive, and, if so, how long after taking it you have to wait before you can operate a vehicle.

Drugged or drunk driving is a common occurrence in some people’s lives. Many believe that just one drink or one hit of pot won’t affect their driving ability, but even a small amount of alcohol or drugs in the body can be enough to alter someone’s motor abilities and reaction times. Statistics from a 2013 – 2014 Governors Highway Safety Association roadside survey indicate that nearly 22 percent of all weekend drivers were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This number could be much higher, however, as it’s substantially more challenging to test drivers for drug use than for alcohol in roadside conditions.

How Many Accidents Are Caused by Drugged Driving Each Year?

In 2016, 20.7 million drivers drove under the influence of some substance, and 11.8 million of them were under the influence of something other than alcohol. Every year, millions of people are arrested for drugged driving. A survey by the GHSA reported that 44 percent of drivers involved in fatal traffic accidents were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Not all of these drugs were considered illicit; over-the-counter drugs and doctor-prescribed pharmaceuticals were also accounted for in these statistics.

State law enforcement agencies are having a challenging time adjusting to changing marijuana laws. Though still illegal on a federal level, many states have legalized pot for medicinal or recreational use. With marijuana use increasingly becoming legalized throughout the United States, the rate of drugged driving accidents each year has increased. From 2007 to 2014, states saw a 48 percent increase in drivers testing positive for THC, the psychoactive compound contained in marijuana.

How Do Drugs and Alcohol Affect a Driver?

Every drug, including alcohol, affects a person’s ability to drive a vehicle, but not every intoxicating substance goes about this in the same way. Each substance changes various aspects of the brain and other bodily systems, making driving dangerous because of the possibility to react differently than while sober.

Alcohol, for instance, affects drivers’ central nervous systems by limiting activity in the brain’s neocortex and cerebellum. These parts of the brain are responsible for high-level decision making, coordination, and motor skills. Alcohol greatly reduces these systems’ ability to function, resulting in blurred or doubled vision, slurred speech, impaired balance and the possibility of blacking out, to name a few symptoms.

Marijuana affects different parts of the brain that respond to the plant’s cannabinoids. Memory loss, paranoia, hallucinations and a loss of coordination are some symptoms of pot use that may cause a driver to weave in and out of lanes, not respond to traffic lights or signs, or briefly lose consciousness, all of which can be incredibly dangerous when operating a vehicle.

Opiates, a widespread class of medication that has both prescribed varieties, i.e., Oxycodone, Oxycontin, Dilaudid and Vicodin, as well as illicit forms like heroin and fentanyl, affect a person’s brain differently than alcohol and marijuana. However, symptoms like memory loss and incredibly marked drowsiness can cause a driver’s abilities to become significantly impaired. Other illegal drugs like methamphetamine or cocaine can cause a person to become agitated, aggressive and reckless, to name only some of their effects. A driver under the influence of these or any other illicit drugs can cause injury or death to themselves or others.

Many people who drive drunk have other intoxicants in their systems. These substances can combine to create an even stronger effect on the user, so anyone driving intoxicated is substantially more likely to cause a potentially fatal accident.

Who Are the Most at Risk for Drugged Driving?

Anyone who drinks or uses any form of drugs and then chooses to drive is at risk of getting into a severe accident. However, men are much more likely than women to be involved in an accident involving drugs or alcohol. In 2010, men committed four out of every five DUIs, and 32 percent of these belonged to males between the ages of 21 and 34.

Another group that’s more at risk than others is those who engage in drug or alcohol use on a regular basis. People who binge drink, which is having more than five drinks in a setting for men or four drinks for women, are more likely to find themselves behind the wheel of a car more often, resulting in a much higher rate of accidents. This group was responsible for over 80 percent of drunk driving accidents in 2010.

Teens are especially susceptible to drugged driving. Their lack of experience with driving as well as with drug and alcohol use results in a particularly deadly combination. Teens exhibit less regard for speed limits and safe driving habits than adults, and drugs and alcohol can especially exacerbate this behavior. Car crashes are the leading cause of death for teens between the ages of 16 and 19. According to a 2016 survey by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 12 percent of high school seniors reported driving under the influence of marijuana while 9 percent said they’d driven drunk.

Some people believe that they have a high tolerance for liquor or drugs and therefore are better suited to drive a car inebriated. This belief, however, is not true. Any amount of alcohol or drugs in a person’s system can result in a DUI or arrest by the police. The legal blood alcohol content, or BAC, limit in most states is .08  although a police officer can arrest anyone who’s showing signs of intoxication even if their BAC is below that percentage.

What Are the Penalties for Drugged Driving?

The most significant penalty that can occur because of drugged or drunk driving is causing death to yourself or others. Vehicles of any sort can turn into deadly weapons if operated by a driver who’s drunk or high. It’s for this reason that every state has strict laws regarding DUIs and DWIs.

Sixteen states have zero tolerance laws making it illegal for any measurable amount of a drug to be present in a driver’s system while operating a vehicle. Seven states have “per se” laws that make it illegal for any measurable amount of drugs to be in a person’s body outside the legal limits. States are also making more specific regulations regarding the parameters and legality of marijuana use.

Penalties for breaking these laws can be strict. Citations, arrests, jail or prison time, hefty fines, DUI classes, and rehab are just some of the punishments a person convicted of drugged driving can expect if they are pulled over or involved in an accident.

How Can Drugged Driving Be Prevented?

There are many ways to prevent drugged driving. The simplest and by far the most effective way is to never get behind the wheel when you’re under the influence of any substance whatsoever. If you’ve had anything to drink or you’ve consumed any intoxicant, find a designated driver to take you home. A ride-hailing or taxi service can take you where you need to go without you having to drive at all. If you’re in addiction recovery, it’s strongly suggested that you avoid going to places or events where alcohol and drugs are readily available.

It’s also important to not let anyone you know drive drunk or high. If you see a friend about to drive in this state, and if you’re not under the influence of anything, offer to take them where they need to go or get a taxi for them. Even if you’re not intoxicated, it’s important to pay attention to the road when you’re driving, especially on popular drinking days like the weekends and holidays. Always be sure to wear your seat belt.

Despite alcohol being legal to purchase by anyone over 21, the legal status of most drugs varies considerably. Marijuana is legal in only some states and still illegal on the federal level. Doctor-prescribed drugs, especially opiates, are highly controlled and illegal to use without a prescription. Illicit drugs, which include but are not limited to heroin, cocaine, fentanyl, LSD, inhalants, and methamphetamine, are entirely illegal no matter the state. Using these drugs can result in DUIs, injuries or fatal accidents.

Drugs and alcohol can significantly inhibit your ability to drive. With many states legalizing marijuana use, and with more and more people using it, drivers need to be aware of the risks that can come from drugged driving. With more ways available to people to travel without driving under the influence, drugged driving is more avoidable now than it ever has been.

Medications to Reverse Heroin Overdose

Heroin is a highly addictive illegal opioid derived from morphine. Used to produce feelings of euphoria, the drug takes a toll on individuals, their families, and society. It contributes to crime and violence, and it creates problems in work and educational settings. One study estimates that heroin use costs at least $51,000 for each user annually, which equates to $51 billion for the entire United States.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says almost 500,000 people in the U.S. reported using heroin in 2017. That same year, 15,000 people died from drug overdoses involving heroin, a death rate that was five times higher in 2017 than in 2010. The states with the highest percentages of heroin deaths were California, Illinois, and Virginia.

There are medications that can help those struggling with both heroin use and overdose.

How Is a Heroin Overdose Treated?

Heroin can be deadly. A large dosage depresses breathing and heart rate so much that a person cannot survive without medical intervention. When help arrives in time, there are medical treatments that can reverse or stop an overdose. They include:

Polyethylene glycol can sometimes be used to flush an overdose of heroin from the body. Although it is usually prescribed as a laxative for severe constipation, it can also flush opioids that have not been metabolized from the system. It may not work in large doses, however.

Naloxone is an old medication that has become more popular in recent years because of the opioid and heroin addiction crisis. It is a mainstay in emergency rooms where it is used to stop a heroin overdose. It is also given to first responders and police officers to give to people who have taken too much heroin. Individuals and families are also trained to administer the medication if a loved one takes an overdose.

Naloxone works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as opioids. Because it binds more quickly than heroin, it stops the body from reacting to the heroin, ending the deadly effects of the overdose. It may not work when an individual has taken a massive amount of heroin.

It also leaves the body faster than heroin, meaning the heroin can stay in the system after the naloxone is metabolized. If this happens, the overdose may return. That is why it is important to call for emergency medical help after administering the naloxone.

Studies are being done to see if naloxone can also be used to treat heroin abuse and addiction. Although more research is needed, it may be helpful as a therapy for tapering people off an opioid addiction. Its ability to stop heroin’s effects in the brain could potentially help with withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Nalmefene is routinely used to stop or reverse the effects of alcohol poisoning. Because it binds to the same receptors in the brain that heroin does, it can treat heroin overdoses. Studies suggest that it can also quickly reverse the effects of heroin overdose. It may, in fact, be more effective for treating overdoses than naloxone, but it has only been approved for use in hospitals. It does not work for symptoms of cocaine withdrawal.

Buprenorphine, known by its brand name as Suboxone, is prescribed to help with withdrawal symptoms and cravings. Patients can take the drug at home to decrease the risk of a heroin overdose.

Are There Safe Natural Alternatives?

A controversial alternative called kratom is an herbal supplement derived from the same botanical family as coffee and gardenia. It comes from tropical evergreen trees in Southeast Asia. Its leaves can be smoked, chewed, as well as made into a tea, extract, or capsule. Its effects can be felt at low doses, and euphoria occurs at higher doses. Kratom has been used for hundreds of years but has been made illegal in some Asian countries. It is also illegal in some states in the U.S.

In the past, kratom has been used in the U.S. to relieve pain and reduce opiate withdrawal, but its effectiveness and safety have been questioned. In 2018, the FDA said that it has no scientific evidence of its use for medical reasons. The FDA also says that kratom should not be used as an alternative treatment for opioid addiction.

In 2018, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an outbreak of kratom-linked salmonella infections in 20 states. No deaths were reported, but 11 people were hospitalized. The supplement had been consumed in teas, pills, and powder. Officials were not able to find the source of the tainted kratom. The supplement may also have dangerous pesticide residue and unsafe additives.

How Is Heroin Addiction Treated?

Substance use disorder is a chronic condition, but medications can be prescribed to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms, making it easier for users to stay sober. Each person’s treatment is tailored to individual needs and takes into consideration other illnesses and health issues that occur at the same time as the addiction. Treatments for heroin use disorder may include medications, behavioral therapy, or a combination of the two.

Studies show that treating heroin use disorder with medication helps to keep people in a treatment program. It also helps to decrease drug use, reduce criminal activity, and lessen the risk of transmitting infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV.

People who give up heroin often have severe withdrawal symptoms that include nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Medications can ease the detox process and make relapse less likely.

Behavioral therapy may take place in outpatient or residential environments. To reinforce and encourage sobriety, treatments may rely on reward systems or cognitive-behavioral therapy, which teaches ways of coping with stress and dealing with relapse.

Some programs also use the 12-step system or other kinds of support groups to encourage patients and give them an opportunity to share their feelings. Every treatment should be tailored to fit the specific needs of an individual patient.

What Drugs Are Used to Treat Heroin Addiction?

Medications used to treat heroin and other opioid use disorders use the same opioid receptors as the drug that causes the addiction, but they are safer and less likely to lead to behavioral problems than the opioid. Three kinds of medications are used to treat addictions. They include:

  • Agonists

Agonists activate opioid receptors.

  • Partial agonists

Partial agonists activate opioid receptors, but they create a smaller response.

  • Antagonists

Antagonists block the opioid receptors, but they also change the reward effects of the addictive drug.

The type of medication used to treat a specific patient depends on their individual needs. Treatment centers use three types of drugs:

Methadone

Methadone is sold under the brand names Dolophine or Methadose. It is an opioid agonist that is taken by mouth so that it reaches the brain slowly to lower the risk of a high. It has been used since the 1960s to treat heroin addicts, and it can be effective for individuals not helped by other medications. Methadone must be administered through an approved daily treatment plan.

Methadone also has the following benefits:

  • It is not likely to cause an overdose.
  • Methadone maintenance gives the patient an opportunity to stay stable long enough to make constructive changes.
  • Doses are only required once a day or less.
  • It cuts down on health problems, such as injection-related infections and vein problems.
  • Methadone is more affordable than heroin.

The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Foundation says that methadone treatment is more effective if it is part of a comprehensive program. These types of programs combine methadone maintenance with counseling, support groups, and alternative therapies.

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine is sold under the brand name Subutex. Buprenorphine helps to relieve heroin cravings but does not produce the highs or side effects of other opioids. It is taken sublingually, or orally, and contains an antagonist called naloxone that keeps an addict from getting high if they inject the buprenorphine. If a heroin user injects Subutex, the naloxone causes withdrawal symptoms not caused when the drug is taken by mouth.

Buprenorphine has the following benefits:

  • It is less likely to cause physical dependence or euphoria.
  • It has a mild withdrawal when compared to heroin.
  • It lessens cravings and has a lower risk of abuse.
  • It suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms.
  • It cuts down on illegal opioid use.
  • It blocks the effects of other opioids.

Buprenorphine, approved by the FDA in 2002, was the first drug that could be prescribed by certified doctors through the Drug Addiction Treatment Act. This made it possible for patients to take medication without visiting a treatment center. Buprenorphine availability has given many people the opportunity to get the treatment they need.

In 2016, the law was expanded with the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act, or CARA, to include eligible physician assistants and nurse practitioners. There are two FDA-approved generic forms of the drug, making it more affordable and more widely available for the people who need it. In 2016, the FDA approved a buprenorphine implant that lasts six months and an injection that is taken once a month.

Naltrexone

Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist licensed under the brand name Vivitrol. It prevents the effects of heroin, does not sedate, is not addictive, and does not cause physical dependence. However, it is sometimes not effective because patients have trouble following the treatment. An injectable long-acting version of the medication came out in 2010, allowing patients to be treated monthly rather than through daily doses.

Naltrexone has the following benefits:

  • It can be prescribed by any health care provider with a license to write prescriptions.
  • It reduces cravings.
  • It decreases reaction to drug-conditioned cues.
  • There is less risk of withdrawal than with opioids.

What Happens After Treatment for Addiction or Overdose?

Individuals who have a long-term problem with heroin, or those who overdose on the drug, recover more quickly and experience fewer relapses when they undergo treatment in a residential facility. Trained caregivers and medical professionals can monitor the use of prescribed medications and daily activities, but the stay also gives people a chance to take a break from the stress and temptations they face in their daily lives. Therapy usually includes medication, counseling, and information that offer support, encouragement, and skills for avoiding relapse and returning to a normal lifestyle.

If you or someone you love has a problem with heroin, there is help available. Heroin addiction is a chronic condition that requires lifetime maintenance, but the rate of relapse is similar to that of medical conditions like type 2 diabetes. Recovery requires commitment and lifestyle changes, but it is worth the effort.

America’s Heroin Epidemic

How does taking opioids make someone feel? We usually avoid asking this question when discussing recreational drug use because nobody wants to encourage drug experimentation, let alone drug addiction. When the topic is addressed, it’s easy for people to assume that only weak-minded, reckless people turn to drugs.

Sadly, not many people are prepared to understand that drug addiction, particularly heroin and opioid addiction, has risen to epidemic proportions. America’s heroin epidemic affects all of us. It could be your significant other, your neighbor or even your child. No one ever thinks that it can happen to them or someone they love. However, heroin addiction doesn’t discriminate.

Dating back to the 1990s, pharmaceutical companies claimed that patients taking certain opioid medications would not become addicted. As such, health care providers began prescribing opioids for everything from sprained ankles to post-partum pain control. With this increased rate of opioid prescriptions, it slowly became clear that these types of medications were highly addictive and often led to substance abuse issues. As addiction levels rise, so does the need to understand that opioids, legally or illegally, led the U.S. to its current heroin epidemic.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, estimates that the economic burden brought about by prescription opioid and heroin use comes in at $78.5 billion. This figure includes addiction treatment, the cost of health care, legal expenses and lost productivity.

Understanding the Epidemic

The opioid epidemic has been described as the deadliest drug crisis in American history. According to the CDC, more than 115 people die from opioid overdoses every day.

People used to think that only unemployed people from broken homes turned to heroin to escape reality. No longer is opioid use limited to low-income areas; it has transcended into all geographic areas, affecting people of all ages and ethnicities. Now, the faces of heroin addiction include veterans who cannot find work after leaving the military, moms who needed pain relief after giving birth and even people who had oral surgery.

Many people who become addicted to heroin do not have a prior history of substance misuse. Substance use disorder is not linear or predictable. Some people who were introduced to drugs through prescription pain relievers end up on heroin. Health care officials say that the ever-increasing abuse of prescribed painkillers leads users to the street when they no longer can obtain the drug legally. Unfortunately, because heroin is so addictive, it leads to increased drug-seeking behavior.

Those who misuse the drug and become addicted look for a stronger and possibly cheaper high. Heroin is both, but it is also deadly. It can be laced with other drugs that cause death. Deaths from heroin overdose doubled between 2010 and 2012. The death toll also increased dramatically in 2014 when heroin mixed with fentanyl became more common. Fentanyl, when combined with heroin, is lethal. Users can die within seconds of ingestion.

Although the issue is multifaceted, drug makers and physicians play a key role in this epidemic. After all, if there were no pharmaceutical opioids, physicians wouldn’t be able to prescribe them. That is not to say that they are responsible for another person’s substance use disorder, but the snowballing effect of prescription drug use and not being able to gain access to them has led many Americans to heroin.

Veterans and Heroin Use

Veterans have also been affected by America’s opioid epidemic. Untreated chronic pain has led many veterans to seek out pain relief on the street. After being discharged from their service, some veterans find themselves unemployed and homeless. Depression and the need to escape create the perfect backdrop for substance use disorders. According to the VA, it is estimated that 68,000 veterans are currently struggling with opioid use disorders, and when they can no longer gain access to prescription pain medication legally, they may turn to heroin.

Heroin’s Effects

Heroin can be snorted, injected or swallowed. The speed at which heroin reaches the brain depends on the method taken. Users who inject heroin can feel its high within seven to eight seconds. Astonishingly, not all first-time users experience the feeling of euphoria we hear about. Since heroin slows down the digestive tract, some users may become nauseated and vomit.

Many users report that the high they experience is similar to the feeling after a satisfying sexual encounter, only much more intense. It is this sensation that drives users back to the drug. The brain cells that are affected by heroin eventually become damaged, causing the inability to feel pleasure without heroin. In turn, these cells create the intense craving heroin users have. Unfortunately, the more that individuals take the drug, the larger amounts they need to achieve a high. Often, users become convinced that they can’t function normally without the drug.

Symptoms of Heroin Addiction

It is not surprising that an estimated 23 percent of all people who try heroin will become dependent. The brain’s receptors change almost immediately upon use, leading to an inexplicable high within minutes. Since heroin produces a downer effect, using it produces an almost instantaneous feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Similar to other kinds of opiates, heroin prohibits the brain’s ability to feel pain.

Initially, heroin users can hide the signs of their habit. Over time, family members and co-workers may start to notice the signs of drug use, which include cycles of alertness followed by falling asleep, constricted pupils, rapid behavioral changes and shortness of breath.

The above red flags are not unique to heroin. There are more definitive signs that a heroin user exhibits and these typically include possession of paraphernalia used to prepare the drug. In addition, behavioral changes become more evident as drug users sink further into the substance abuse cycle. Individuals may lie to cover up their addiction and avoid making eye contact. Speech may be incoherent. Performance at work and school may decline, resulting in unemployment or expulsion.

Long-Term Effects of Heroin Use

When someone continues to use heroin despite the deadly consequences, they can develop all kinds of health issues as follows:

Central nervous system

Heroin’s impact on a user’s brain is profound. The receptors that produce chemical signals for happiness and pleasure shrink. People who use heroin for long periods of time also show deterioration of white matter on CT scans of the brain. As such, their ability to make sound decisions and regulate their behavior is altered.

Respiratory system

Like other opiates, heroin slows respiratory function. People who use heroin may breathe much slower and shallower when they are high. If someone uses too much, they may stop breathing. The risk of cardiac arrest is one of the major health risks of heroin. Although it can occur the first time someone uses heroin, chronic users usually need to take higher doses to feel the same effect, which increases the risk of respiratory failure.

Cardiovascular system

Large doses of heroin can cause sudden death. Long-term heroin users also face a slew of other cardiovascular issues including vein damage. With each injection, the damage is done to the veins and arteries that lead to the heart. In turn, infection and abscesses can occur. According to the CDC, approximately 32 percent of heroin users in New York City suffer from a drug-induced abscess.

Digestive system

Heroin can also negatively impact the user’s digestive tract. Its sedative properties slow the movement of food and water, causing constipation and bloating. Users may not disclose these symptoms nor seek treatment, putting them at greater risk for developing intestinal blockages.

What’s Being Done

The FDA believes a multidisciplinary approach to treatment would help bridge the gap between substance use disorders and treatment. Stricter limitation of the frequency and the number of opioid prescriptions would force people to look for alternative ways of pain management, including cognitive therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy.

The CDC has also partnered with many states to combat both opioid addiction and heroin use. By educating the public and setting up safe zones for those who are suffering from addiction, the hope is that users will go to those safe zones to inject or use as opposed to getting high on the street.

The Opioid Crisis Response Act of 2018 marks a breakthrough in the fight against the heroin epidemic in the U.S. Federal action is intended to make people more aware of the crisis and provide resources for those who want to get clean. However, one the largest hindrances to this bill being passed are funding. If the legislation is successful, some pharmaceutical companies could be bankrupt, thus making treatment of other chronic medical conditions more difficult.

Getting Treatment

Behavioral and pharmacological treatment can be effective for heroin users. Comprehensive treatment allows users to remain abstinent and restore a level of normalcy into their lives.

Heroin users must complete a detoxification program prior to entering a long-term treatment program. During detoxification, patients may be given medications to reduce the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, which can include pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Even though the detoxification period is not a treatment for the addiction itself, it is an effective first step.

After detox, many users manage their cravings with medication. Several medications have been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. Since they work on the same receptors as heroin in the brain, they are considered safe and effective. They satisfy cravings while blocking opioid receptors in the brain; even if a user relapses and takes heroin, they would not experience a high, which can help them on their road to recovery.

The most common medication used for recovery is methadone. Taken orally, it is slow-acting and prevents withdrawal symptoms. If the user is not at an inpatient facility, the medication is usually dispensed through an approved outpatient treatment center on a daily basis.

Buprenorphine has also been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. This medication is only available through certified physicians. However, it also eliminates the need for daily trips to a methadone clinic. Generic options are available, making it a more affordable treatment option.

Getting treatment for any substance use disorder may be frightening and, for some, embarrassing. People with long-standing emotional problems or chronic pain are usually at a higher risk of developing substance use disorders. However, that should never dissuade anyone from asking for help. The good news is that heroin addiction is treatable. The first step is asking for help and admitting that there is a problem. Both inpatient and intensive outpatient treatments are available for those in need.

Treating Drugs With Drugs: Heroin Addiction Treatment With Marijuana

The lesser of two evils. Fighting fire with fire. Throwing a Band-Aid at the problem? If you find yourself scratching your head in concern right now, you likely are not alone. Many of us may recall a time in school, out in the community, through the news, or various other sources when marijuana was referred to as the “gateway drug.” Ultimately suggesting the use of marijuana will open the flood doors and lead to the use of more and worse drugs. Now, we are seeing the very same drug being used as a way of treatment for heroin addiction. Believe it or not, some treatment facilities are even going as far as saying marijuana is a cure for heroin addiction. The adhesive on Band-Aids isn’t super glue and even super glue does not last forever.

While this claim has gained attention countrywide, there are still experts in the addiction field that are highly skeptical. Dr. Mark Willenbring for example, a psychiatrist who provides treatment to addicts (and formerly oversaw research at the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism), believes that alternative approaches are needed for traditional drug treatment, but not this – stating “the concept on its face is absurd.” Dr. Willenbring, further states “I’m not prone to making exaggerated or unqualified statements and in this case I don’t need to make any: It doesn’t work.” — “Like trying to cure alcoholism with Valium.” Common sense should tell us substituting one drug for another doesn’t bring a solution. It develops yet another layer to the addiction. If the goal is ultimately to be drug-free, how is adding another drug to the mix an effective means of treatment?

Why Medical Marijuana?

The zeitgeist contradicting Dr. Willenbring’s perspective is that medical marijuana has reportedly become a less harmful way to treat certain diseases and ailments including but not limited to multiple sclerosis, arthritis, epilepsy, glaucoma, HIV, chronic pain, Alzheimer’s and various forms of cancer.

To complicate matters further, medical marijuana is now being used to treat substance use disorders. A 2014 study conducted by the Journal of the American Medical Association found that the death rates for opiate overdoses were significantly lower in states with medical marijuana as compared to states that continue to outlaw marijuana.

Let’s look at the other side of the coin…

Wait – isn’t marijuana still considered a drug? Therefore, medical professionals are essentially treating one form of substance use disorder with a different substance? Yes. Marijuana is still considered a Schedule 1 drug by the federal government. Why is this important? Well, Schedule 1 drugs are drugs that according to the United States Drug Enforcement Agency have certain characteristics which includes drugs or other substances that have a high potential for abuse. More notably, among the drugs considered to be a Schedule 1 drug is heroin. That’s right, we are now being told that marijuana – a drug with the same classification and the drug for which we are trying to cure an addiction to – heroin – is supposed to be a solution.

heroin-use-is-a-part-of-a-larger-substance-abuse-problem

As shown in the above image, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that those addicted to marijuana are three times more likely to become addicted to heroin. Haven’t we learned from past attempts to treat drug use with additional drugs that put us at risk for comorbid addiction? The late 19th and early 20th centuries were characterized by using morphine to treat alcohol addiction. The next “solution” was to treat all the morphine addicts with, wait for it, heroin! Additional renditions of using drugs to treat drugs continue to occur, with an eerie feel that we’re in a Simpson’s episode, blindly following Seymour Skinner’s philosophy on extinguishing invasive species.

What are the prescribers saying and doing?

Several states are authorized to dispense medical marijuana to treat opioid addiction however, there are opposing points of view. While it’s possible that close monitoring of a program using medical marijuana to treat heroin addiction, the ongoing concern is that we’re just creating a second addiction which will eventually be super ceded by the harder drug, heroin.  This suggests that long-term monitoring with significant attempts to ensure accountability for heroin addicts will be necessary for successful prescription of medical marijuana.

While there is data that suggests using medical marijuana as an effective harm reduction approach in reducing opioid overdose mortality, do we want to continue using addictive drugs to treat drug addiction considering the aforementioned failed attempts? The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine suggests using the following prevention techniques to curb our populations’ initial and current involvement with illicit and prescribed drugs:

  • Education
  • Targeting high-risk populations
  • Targeting those with a history of substance use disorders
  • Involve immediate and extended family members
  • Propaganda discouraging the sharing of prescription opioids
  • Encourage appropriate disposal of unused and expired opioids
  • Medication take back days
  • Prescription monitoring programs
  • Increase prescriber use of pain contracts

To drug, or not to drug: is it even a question?

There’s significant history suggesting that using addictive substances to treat substance use disorders is highly (no pun intended) unsuccessful. An argument can be made that marijuana is the least of its preceding evils (i.e. morphine, OxyContin, hydrocodone). Despite marijuana being excused as much less harmful drug, by the buyers and sellers, an argument can be made that marijuana can be debilitating and increase the risk of harm to the user and those around him or her.

Should we prescribe to this new school of thought, how can we actually determine that medical marijuana is a solution? Will states be willing to install an infrastructure that sanctions those in receipt of medical marijuana so they can have a license to operate a motor vehicle while under the influence? How does one get to work if they smoked three hours before a shift starts? What if that employee needs the marijuana to control his or her chronic pain at their place of employment? How does that affect those in rural areas that don’t have access to public transportation? Are we contradicting the ‘buzzed driving is impaired driving’ campaign? These are important questions that seemingly have not been answered yet.

We all undoubtedly want to find the solution for drug addiction – especially when it comes to heroin as it has claimed so many lives. But at what cost? Normalizing drug use has a history of being a slippery slope. Operating a motor vehicle is just one of the seemingly infinite variables that will need to be addressed and we’re doing it on whim with an absence of years of conclusive studies and evidence.

So many questions with so few answers

If we’re betting on history and lobbying against prescribing addictive drugs to treat drug addiction, something’s got to give. Between 2001 and 2015, the rate of opioid overdose fatalities quadrupled. What’s interesting is that many longitudinal studies on marijuana use are tainted because the people being studied are often combining marijuana with other illicit drugs, including heroin. The studies are further skewed by the increasing THC content in marijuana over the last couple of decades. So, we’re trying to study marijuana use but its historical cautionary slogan of it being a gateway drug is becoming true to those that are trying to push it through legislation. Follow the money! Taxes in states with legal medical marijuana are much lower than their counterparts.

Need for a cure

Not only have the heroin-related overdoses deaths quadrupled over a fifteen year period but individuals using heroin are likely to also be abusing multiple other substances, including cocaine and prescription opioid pain relievers. It is estimated that nearly all people who use heroin also use at least one other drug. Based on this information alone – yes we are in desperate need for a cure.

One way to combat the heroin epidemic is to educate yourself and the ones you love on the risk factors associated with the addiction. The following are some risks of those most at risk of heroin addiction:

  • People who are addicted to prescription opioid pain relievers
  • People who are addicted to cocaine
  • People without insurance or enrolled in Medicaid
  • Non-Hispanic whites
  • Males
  • People who are addicted to marijuana and alcohol
  • People living in a large metropolitan area
  • 18 to 25 year olds

Do any of the above apply to you or someone you love? The risks are not limited to these situations as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that some of the largest increases actually occurred groups with historically low rates of heroin use. These demographic groups include women, the privately insured and people with higher incomes. It appears there are no bounds when it comes to the heroin epidemic.

Perhaps most notably, as it relates to the current subject matter, one of the risks associated with heroin addiction is in fact people who are addicted to marijuana and alcohol. Based on this alone, how are doctors considering using a drug that increases an individual’s risk to become addicted to heroin as a cure?

In conclusion

While it is quite clear that there is a need for a cure for heroin addiction and other substance use disorders, it is not as clear that medical marijuana is the solution. Since there is no time to lose as heroin addiction is truly a life threatening disorder, instead of relying on this new treatment with medical marijuana which has very little scientific backing, there are multiple other treatment and prevention options available to you or someone you love.

responding-to-the-heroin-epidemic

Below are some options which may be the right fit for you or someone you love:

  • Medications. There are several medications which aided individuals who are trying to combat their addiction. These medications have been well-researched and also are FDA-approved.
  • Therapy and support groups. This option may suit you or someone you love as well. No one treatment is the right treatment for everyone. Speaking with a professional will help find the right treatment plan for the individual and may just be the missing piece to the puzzle to aid in recovery.
  • Call SAMHSA 24-hour national helpline. If you are not sure where to start, please pick up the phone. The helpline is always available to you or someone you love and it is an invaluable resource as something as simple as reaching out may just save a life.

Most importantly, whatever treatment is right for you, the time for treatment is now. Don’t waste anymore of your life – get help before it is too late.

The American Opioid Epidemic

 

Between 2000 and 2014, American rates of death from opioid overdose have tripled from three deaths per 100,000 people to nine per 100,000. That adds up to 28,647 deaths in 2014. While the number of heroin overdoses has made a rapid climb, the majority of the lethal overdoses involve prescription opioids  –  and the heroin crisis is closely tied to prescription drugs, since many users become addicted to a prescription opioid before switching to the street drug. In March 2015, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell announced an initiative targeting three priority areas to tackle the opioid epidemic and help save lives. These include: improving prescribing practices, expanding access to and the use of medication-assisted treatment, and expanding the use of naloxone.

The abuse of opioids, a group of drugs that  includes heroin and prescription painkillers has had a devastating impact on public health in this country. According to the CDC approximately 100 Americans died from drug overdose every day in 2010. Prescription drugs were involved in well over half of the 38,300 recorded fatal overdoses and opioid pain relievers were involved in 16,600 of those deaths.

Overdose Deaths Involving Opioid Analgesics

Research shows that many non-medical users obtain prescription medications from family and friends.

How Different Misusers of Pain Relievers Get Their Drugs

Today, more Americans die from drug overdoses than car crashes or gun fatalities. In total, drug overdoses killed 47,000 people in the United States in 2014, the latest year for which data is available. That’s 130 deaths per day, on average.

 

The majority of those deaths – 29,000, or 80 per day – involved an opioid.

Between 1999 and 2014, the overdose epidemic spread from a few concentrated pockets in Appalachia and northern New Mexico to nearly every corner of America. The opioid overdose crisis began early in central Appalachia, a region encompassing much of West Virginia and eastern Kentucky. The largely rural area – dominated by physically taxing industries, including coal mining, agriculture and timbering – was susceptible to the pain-relief promise of prescription opioids such as OxyContin and Vicodin. These painkillers were aggressively marketed throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. As prescriptions proliferated, so did misuse and abuse. In central Appalachia, as in many parts of the country, the prescription painkiller epidemic also fuelled the influx of a cheap, alternative opioid: heroin. As painkiller-related deaths began to fall in the early 2010s following federal and state crackdowns on prescription opioids, heroin-related deaths began to rise.

In the west, New Mexico showed earliest signs of the looming overdose crisis, but Utah was not far behind. The state’s overdose death rate climbed steadily during the early 2000s, driven by growing prescription opioid dependence. But Utah lawmakers took action early. In 2007, they established a two-year public health-based program to combat painkiller misuse. Over the next three years, prescription opioid-related overdose deaths dropped more than 25%, but the success was short lived. After funding ran out in 2010, deaths began to climb again. Drug overdose deaths in Utah continue to be fueled by prescription painkiller misuse, often in combination with other depressant drugs . Though heroin deaths have made a smaller impact in the state, they are also on the rise. Now, six years after the Prescription Pain Medication Program program ended, the Utah house of representatives declared drug overdose deaths to be a public health emergency, and passed a slate of new public health measures, including the legalization of needle-exchange programs.

New England Opioid Overdose RatesNew England is grappling with a more recent scourge. Since 2013, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and other north-eastern states have seen large spikes in overdose deaths attributed to increasing heroin use and the introduction of a new deadly drug: Fentanyl. Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid 50 times more potent than heroin, first appeared in the region around 2012, making its way down from Canada. Suppliers often cut the drug into heroin or other substances before selling it to users who may not know exactly what they’re buying. Because of its strength – and users’ unfamiliarity with it – fentanyl has proven particularly deadly.

In the face of these new challenges, Massachusetts and other north-eastern states have begun to expand prevention efforts and access to treatment programs. Naloxone, a drug that can reverse opioid overdoses, has become more widely available throughout the region and local harm-reduction initiatives are being tested.

 

Meanwhile, Fentanyl has surfaced in several more states, including Ohio and Florida.

Florida, once known as the prescription drug capital of America. began cracking down on “pills mill” clinics in 2010. Soon after, the state’s drug overdose death rate took a downward turn, declining through 2013.But by 2014, deaths were inching back up in Florida too.

Florida did a good job of cracking down on the supply side, but at the same time they actually cut treatment funding. Not addressing the demand side of the problem has contributed to the continuing of the epidemic.

Though postponed for a few years, Florida’s overdose crisis has progressed along a familiar pattern: a wave of prescription opioid abuse followed by heroin and, soon after, fentanyl.

More recently, fentanyl has cropped up in a previously unseen form: fake Xanax pills. The “death pills”, as they have become known, have also been found in California, Indiana and other parts of the mid-west.

Opioid Overdose DeathsIn October 2015, the President issued a Memorandum to Federal Departments and Agencies directing important steps to combat the prescription drug abuse and heroin epidemic. You can find it here.

In March 2016 HHS awarded $94 million to health centers in Affordable Care Act funding to help treat the prescription opioid abuse and heroin epidemic in America. This funding covers 271 health centers in 45 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to improve and expand the delivery of substance abuse services in health centers, with a specific focus on treatment of opioid use disorders in underserved populations.

Administered by the HHS Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), these awards to health centers across the country will increase the number of patients screened for substance use disorders and connected to treatment, increase the number of patients with access to MAT for substance use disorders and opioid treatment, and provide training and educational resources to help health professionals make informed prescribing decisions. This $94 million investment is expected to help awardees hire approximately 800 providers to treat nearly 124,000 new patients.

Research demonstrates that a whole-patient approach to treatment through a combination of medication and counseling and behavioral therapies is most successful in treating opioid use disorders. In 2014, over 1.3 million people received behavioral health services at health centers, This represents a 75 percent increase since 2008 and was made possible with support from the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Recovery Act.

 

Opioid Treatment Options are Available

If you can’t stop taking a drug even if you want to, or if the urge to use drugs is too strong to control, even if you know the drug is causing harm, you might be addicted to opiates. Are you thinking about opioid treatment? Here are some questions to ask yourself:

  1. Do you think about drugs a lot?
  2. Did you ever try to stop or cut down on your drug usage but couldn’t?
  3. Have you ever thought you couldn’t fit in or have a good time without the use of drugs?
  4. Do you ever use drugs because you are upset or angry at other people?
  5. Have you ever used a drug without knowing what it was or what it would do to you?
  6. Have you ever taken one drug to get over the effects of another?
  7. Have you ever made mistakes at a job or at school because you were using drugs?
  8. Does the thought of running out of drugs really scare you?
  9. Have you ever stolen drugs or stolen to pay for drugs?
  10. Have you ever been arrested or in the hospital because of your drug use?
  11. Have you experienced an opioid overdose?
  12. Has using drugs hurt your relationships with other people?

If the answer to some or all of these questions is yes, you might have an addiction. People from all backgrounds can get an addiction. Asking for help is the first important step. Visiting your doctor for a possible referral to opioid treatment is one way to do it. You can ask if he or she is comfortable discussing drug abuse screening and opioid treatment. If not, ask for a referral to another doctor. You can also contact an addiction specialist about opioid rehab. There are 3,500 board-certified physicians who specialize in addiction and opioid treatment in the United States.

Taking the Steps to Overcome Heroin Addiction

Heroin is a growing epidemic in the United States. Each day thousands of men and women fall victim to heroin addiction, many losing their lives early on in their battle. If you are addicted to heroin and ready to get clean, know you are not alone. With thousands of treatment centers across the nation you can get the help you need to overcome heroin addiction.

 

Admit You Have a Problem

It’s easy to make excuses to why you can’t stop using heroin. We know it’s hard to quit, but you have taken the first step in getting clean by admitting you have a problem and that is never easy. Now that you have admitted you have a problem it is important to immediately seek the help you will need to get clean.

 

Starting Treatment

Whether you found a treatment center by word of mouth, a google search or your Doctor’s recommendation, it is great that you took the step to find the help you need to get clean. Starting treatment can be scary, you don’t know what to expect and withdrawal symptoms are starting to kick in. With a brief intake assessment, Doctors and staff will have a full understanding of your addiction and will put together an individualized treatment plan to help you move forward in overcoming your addiction to heroin.

 

Detoxification

Withdrawal is horrible, that is saying the least. You will experience withdrawal symptoms that vary in severity, some making you feel as if you are going to die. This is why detoxification is so important. During this time you will be monitored by nursing staff that will help to ensure your health, safety and comfort. Doctors will prescribe medications to ease symptoms of withdrawal and help you to stabilize, allowing you to move forward in your treatment.

 

Rehabilitation

addiction-recoveryThe rehabilitation process is vital in helping you to overcome heroin addiction. You will go through therapy, individual counseling and group counseling sessions to help you get to the root cause of your addiction and work through it, while educating you on your addiction and helping you to develop the tools needed to overcome heroin addiction and maintain your sobriety in your day to day life.

Tomorrow is a new day, do not let your past get in the way of your future. Start taking the steps needed to overcome heroin addiction today.

Overcoming Heroin Addiction

Heroin addiction is a growing problem throughout the United States. It does not discriminate on who it consumes, affecting men and women of all walks of life. This highly addictive drug is ripping families apart, taking a once happy person and turning them into a drug seeking zombie that only cares about getting their next fix. With no end in sight, the only thing that can be done is educate the public on the dangers of heroin, speak to our children, and offer our support to those who have fallen victim to heroin addiction.

overcoming-heroin-addiction

Getting Out of the Hole of Addiction

When addicted to heroin is can feel like there is no way out. Stopping heroin results in horrible pain as the body withdrawals, only sending you back to the drug for comfort. If you manage to get past the first 72 hours in withdrawal, if you don’t have the right mindset you can easily fall victim to temptation again. To get out of the hole of addiction you do not only need to admit that you have a problem but to seek treatment to help give you a true foundation to start in your recovery.

 

Turning to Chemical Dependency Treatment Professionals

Sure it is possible to quit cold turkey, but the likelyhood of this being an effective way to kick your heroin addiction is slim. Turning to chemical dependency treatment professionals to undergo detoxification, rehabilitation and aftercare will give you the medical treatment, educational tools and support needed to overcome your addiction to heroin.

 

Starting The Treatment Process

You can overcome your heroin addiction with the help of chemical dependency treatment professionals. First you will go through an intake assessment, this will help staff to determine the severity of your addiction and start putting together an individualized treatment plan.

 

Next you will move onto the detox process where you will begin to cleanse the body of the harmful chemicals and toxins related to heroin abuse. During this time you will be monitored to ensure your health and safety, the doctor will prescribe you medications to ease symptoms of withdrawal.

 

After the physical symptoms of withdrawal have been controlled you will move forward to begin the rehabilitation process. There you will go through various therapy and individual counseling sessions, as well as daily group therapies to help you get a true understanding of your addiction and develop the skills needed to maintain your sobriety in your day to day life.

 

When your Therapist and other clinical staff feel you are ready to return home you will work together with them to create an aftercare plan. This will include an outpatient therapy program, NA meetings, a doctor to monitor your medications and to create a support system for when you return home. All of this will help to keep you on the road of recovery, helping you to overcome heroin addiction and move forward to create a more fulfilling and healthy life for yourself and your family.

 

Want to Learn more about Heroin Addiction?

Resources and Organizations

  1. DrugAbuse.gov – https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction
  2. DrugPolicy.org – http://www.drugpolicy.org/drug-facts/heroin-facts
  3. HHS.gov – http://www.hhs.gov/opioids/
  4. American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry

Heroin Addiction Treatment

Heroin addiction is a growing epidemic in the United States. It typically affects young white males between the ages of 18 and 23 years old, however heroin does not discriminate and affects men and women of all ages, races and social backgrounds. Each year thousands of people lose their lives to heroin overdose, nearly 80% of which are deemed accidental.

Taking The First Step

If you are suffering from an addiction to heroin and are ready to take the first step in your recovery by admitting to your problem and asking for help, there are thousands of treatment facilities ready to take you in and help you overcome addiction.

Cleansing The Body

The first aspect in any heroin addiction treatment program will begin with detoxification. This process allows the body to be cleansed of the chemicals and toxins related to heroin abuse. The detoxification process takes place in a hospital-type setting with 24-7 medical supervision to ensure your safety and comfort. Depending on the severity of your addiction you may receive medications to ease symptoms of withdrawal. The detox process can take as little as 3 days, upwards of 2 weeks.

Cleansing the Mind and Soul

The rehabilitation process will help you to cleanse your mind and soul from the damaging effects of heroin addiction. With typical, individual and group counseling, as well as other alternative therapies you will be able to get a better understanding of your addiction and to develop the key tools needed to maintain your sobriety in your daily life.

Regardless to the severity to your addiction, with the right treatment and the self motivation you will be able to overcome heroin addiction and to move forward to living a more fulfilling life in recovery.