Category Archives: Heroin

Are Heroin Overdoses Painful?

Are heroin overdoses painful? You may be asking yourself this question if a loved one is dealing with an addiction to opioids. You may also wonder about what an overdose is like if you use heroin yourself. Naturally, no one wants to think about someone they care about going through a painful and possibly deadly experience. Yet, many people are exposed to the risk of having a heroin overdose every day.

Heroin use has been on the rise in recent years. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 494,000 people over the age of 12 reported using heroin in 2017. The use of heroin has also increased among people in demographics that used to be considered at a lower risk, such as women and people who fall within higher income brackets. Essentially, the growing epidemic of opioid use is something that could impact any household in the United States

For families of someone with an addiction to heroin, the possibility of an overdose is never far from their minds. You may also deal with the constant fear of not being able to save someone’s life if they have an overdose while you are there with them. Sadly, a person is at risk of overdosing every time they use heroin due to the inability to know for sure what a street drug may do to the body.

The simple answer to the question about whether heroin overdoses are painful is probably “no” due to the way that heroin affects pain receptors in the brain. However, there is much more than you need to know about overdoses than just how painful they are to the person going through them. Overdoses can be deadly, which means that you need to be able to recognize when one is happening so that you can immediately get the person help.

How Do People Use Heroin?

Heroin use is often associated with injections. However, someone that you know could also be using heroin through other methods that do not leave track marks on their skin. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, heroin is primarily sold in two different forms that may resemble a brown or white powder or a black, tarry substance.

Depending on the type of heroin that a person has, they may snort it, smoke it or turn it into an injectable liquid. Keep in mind that heroin can sometimes look similar to other types of drugs, but you should always tell emergency responders if you believe that someone used heroin before they began to show signs of an overdose.

What Effect Does Heroin Have on the Body?

When you are wondering if heroin overdoses are painful, understanding how the drug works in the body can help you understand why they are usually painless. Heroin binds to special opioid receptors in the brain. These are the same types of receptors that prescription painkillers bind to, making a person’s brain no longer respond to painful stimuli with the usual levels of discomfort.

Heroin also stimulates a rush of dopamine through a person’s body. Dopamine is an endorphin that generates a feeling of euphoria. Due to these physiological reactions, someone who is having an overdose will likely be unable to feel pain. In fact, they may briefly feel an intense sense of euphoria shortly before their body becomes unable to deal with the drug in their system.

How Does an Overdose Happen?

Having the answer to your concerns about are heroin overdoses painful is reassuring if you have lost someone to their use of the drug. Yet, it is also important to understand how an overdose happens so that you can help anyone who is currently struggling with an addiction.

At the same time that heroin is attaching to the opioid receptors in the brain, it also affects the central nervous system and respiratory system. While a person is under the influence of the drug, their breathing tends to slow down. In some cases, it can slow down to the point that their body simply stops breathing.

A similar situation also occurs with the heart. Heroin can cause arrhythmia, which is an irregular heartbeat. When the heart beats irregularly, the brain does not receive enough blood flow to keep it active. A lack of blood flow can also impact other organs that help keep a person alive, and severe arrhythmias can place so much stress on the heart that it stops beating completely. When a person overdoses, they are at risk of respiratory or cardiac arrest that could lead to death.

Can Other Opioids Lead to an Overdose?

One of the reasons why heroin use is on the rise is linked to the addictive nature of other opioids. Opioid-based prescription painkillers, such as codeine, have addictive qualities that can cause a person to experience physical and psychological withdrawals if they try to stop using them without the appropriate professional help.

Once a physician stops prescribing these drugs to a patient, that person may turn to heroin as a way to address their dependency on opioids. Heroin tends to be a cheaper and easier alternative to prescription drugs. For this reason, the use of other legal opioids could cause a person to eventually begin to use heroin and become at risk of having an overdose.

It must also be noted that those same opioid painkillers can also cause an overdose on their own. This typically happens if a person begins to use the drugs differently than how they were prescribed. For instance, taking an extra dose of prescription pain pills or mixing them with alcohol could lead to an overdose. Overdoses caused by other opioids tend to have the same effects as those stimulated by heroin.

What Are the Signs of a Heroin Overdose?

Being able to recognize the signs of a heroin overdose makes it more likely that you can get someone the help that they need before they experience long-term consequences. With a typical overdose, you will notice that a person’s breathing is slowed or depressed. They may also have a weak pulse that indicates that blood is not circulating through their body properly.

A person who is still conscious may be disoriented and will keep trying to go to sleep. If their eyes are open, then you may detect signs of an overdose in their eyes, such as pinpoint pupils. If this is the case, then you need to do everything you can to keep them awake until they receive treatment to stop the overdose. Over time, a person will continue to lose their ability to maintain consciousness.

It is also common to find someone already unconscious. When this happens, call for emergency services immediately and begin to apply CPR and first aid. Make sure to tell the emergency responders about the person’s history with heroin so that they can treat the suspected overdose properly.

Why Do Some People Overdose and Others Don’t?

Some people use heroin for many years without overdosing. Others might experience an overdose from a single use. Any type of drug can have unpredictable effects, but there are some risk factors that increase a person’s chances of having an overdose.

For instance, a person who uses heroin in large amounts may take more than their body can handle. Using heroin from unsafe sources can also lead to overdose. Many drug dealers cut heroin with other substances or claim that something is heroin when it is not. In these instances, a person may have a reaction to another chemical that is mixed with the heroin.

There is also an increased risk of having an overdose among people who have stopped using the drug and then experience a relapse. After a relapse, a person may try to use the same amount of heroin that they used before they got treatment. After they complete rehab, their body’s tolerance lowers. Due to the serious risk of overdoses among people who relapse, it is always best to seek professional help at the first sign that you or someone else might be about to use heroin again.

What Can Someone Do to Save a Person Who Is Overdosing?

Family and friends of a drug user are often in a position to serve as a first responder during an overdose. The U.S. Surgeon General has issued recommendations that people who are involved with heroin in any way should talk to their physician about having naloxone on hand at home.

Naloxone is a medication that can stop the effects of heroin immediately and reverse an overdose. The medication can be delivered through an injection or nasal spray, and a person can even administer it to themselves if they realize they are overdosing before they lose consciousness or the ability to react to their symptoms.

If you see someone with the signs of an overdose, call for help immediately. Then, administer naloxone if you have it available. You will also need to check the person’s breathing and administer rescue breaths as needed until help arrives. Keep in mind that a person still needs emergency medical treatment even when the use of naloxone stops the overdose.

Sometimes, the body will still continue to struggle with the effects of heroin, and the person may go back into their overdose within a short period of time. They may also feel extremely sick following the administration of naloxone.

Will an Overdose Lead to Permanent Damage?

The severity of the damage a person is left with after an overdose ranges from no lingering effects at all to severe problems such as brain damage. Typically, long-term effects from an overdose are due to a person not getting enough oxygen to their brain for a prolonged period of time. According to the Brain Injury Association of America, approximately 50 percent of people receiving treatment for substance use disorders have some degree of trauma to their brain. For this reason, prompt help is vital to protect a person from the worst effects of their addiction.

Permanent damage can also occur if a person has an overdose in an unsafe place or experiences a secondary injury during the event. For instance, a person who is sitting up or standing when the overdose occurs could fall down and get hurt. People using heroin may also become disoriented and do things that place their health at risks, such as losing consciousness outside where they are exposed to foul weather and criminal activity.

Are Heroin Withdrawals Painful or Dangerous?

The best way to avoid finding out if heroin overdoses are painful is to stop using the drug. However, this is not so easy due to the addictive nature of heroin. It is common for people to return to using the drug just to avoid the withdrawal symptoms that can last for several months. These withdrawal symptoms can include physical sensations such as nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. A person may also experience depression, anxiety, and other psychological symptoms.

While these symptoms are uncomfortable, they are not life-threatening like an overdose is. In fact, there are many things that you can do to find relief from these symptoms so that you or your loved one is less likely to relapse.

Is It Possible to Quit Using Heroin?

The only sure way to avoid having a heroin overdose is to stop using the drug. Yet, relapses are common. The good news is that it is possible to quit using heroin. However, it does take work and a strong support network.

When a person quits using heroin, they may need therapeutic services that help them get off the drug and learn how to cope with the underlying reasons for why they started using it in the first place. Heroin addiction recovery typically involves receiving intensive counseling and therapeutic services for several weeks or months. This is then followed by aftercare, such as attending group meetings or seeing an individual counselor.

While it is reassuring to know that heroin overdoses do not cause immediate pain, it is important to note that losing someone you love to this drug is extremely painful. Fortunately, it is possible to help someone who is having an overdose when you are prepared and can recognize the symptoms. You can also help your loved one avoid having an overdose completely by talking to them about the need for treatment to overcome their habit of using the drug.

What Is Methadone

This medication is used to treat opiate substance use disorder. It’s also used to treat severe chronic pain in patients who need 24/7 pain relief. This medicine is prescribed by a doctor and dispensed to patients at a medication-assisted clinic. The drug can only be dispensed at a SAMHSA-certified opioid treatment program.

This drug is used in medication-assisted recovery programs to wean patients off of other opiates such as heroin, fentanyl, and morphine. It’s also used to maintain those with an opiate addiction on a stable dose of medication.

History of Methadone

German scientists at I.G. Farbenindustrie AG were working in 1937 to develop an easy-to-produce synthetic opiate to supplement Germany’s diminished opium supply. In 1941, they developed a synthetic formulation. They called it Hoechst 10820 or Polamidon.

Polamidon was marketed in 1943 and used by the German army during World War II. After the war ended, the Allies confiscated all information about Hoechst 10820. A U.S. study later reported that although the drug was potentially addictive, it produced less sedation and respiratory depression than morphine. It also had the potential to be marketed as a commercial drug.

In 1947, the American Medical Association named this drug methadone. It was introduced in the U.S. that same year by Eli Lilly and Company as a painkiller named Dolophine. Although the drug is an effective analgesic and pain reliever, it’s primarily used to treat opioid addiction. Dolophine literally means “an end to pain.”

When Was This Drug First Used for Opioid Treatment?

This medication was developed by German physicians Gustav Ehrhart and Max Bockmühl between 1937 and 1939. In the United States, it was approved for use in 1947. Initially, it was used to treat chronic, extreme pain. More recently, it’s been used as a treatment for those addicted to heroin and other opioid painkillers.

This drug has been designated as an Essential Medicine by the World Health Organization. It’s considered an effective and safe medicine, and it comes in tablet, powder and liquid form.

In the 1950s, treatment for heroin addiction usually meant going cold turkey while in prison. Over the next few decades, maintenance treatment was introduced as a more effective and humane treatment for opiate addiction. Heroin addiction was beginning to be seen as a medical problem that required treatment rather than as a moral failing.

Those with a substance use disorder can substitute this medicine for heroin and other opiates that may be dangerous to get and expensive to purchase. You don’t have to buy street drugs or doctor-shop to get a steady supply of prescription painkillers.

Instead of the erratic dosing experienced by those who use street drugs, this medicine can be dispensed daily with no variation in the dose. Rather than producing a “high” like other opiates, this medication simply keeps the withdrawal symptoms at bay so that you can attend to other matters and get on with your life.

Treatment works best when paired with a comprehensive medication-assisted recovery program. These programs typically include social support, education, counseling, and group therapy. Attendance at support group meetings like Narcotics Anonymous may be required.

How Does This Program Work?

This medication changes the way the brain processes pain. It reduces opiate withdrawal symptoms while blocking the sensation of “getting high.” The drug is taken once a day, and the effects can last from four to 24 hours. The dose is determined by the prescribing physician based on the patient’s history.

The more opiates you’ve been using, the higher your dosage will be. The dose can be raised or lowered at any time depending on the needs of the patient and the judgment of the physician. After a patient has been in the program for a while and stabilized on a reasonable dose, he or she may be allowed to take doses home for daily ingestion between clinic visits.

How Long Does Treatment Last?

The majority of treatment professionals agree that the most effective treatment lasts for at least one year, but some patients take this medicine for longer. If a patient wants to try life methadone-free, he or she should gradually taper off under the supervision of a doctor to minimize withdrawal symptoms and to maximize the possibility of success.

What Are the Side Effects?

Most side effects of this medication are well-tolerated. However, there are some symptoms that shouldn’t be ignored. Call for emergency services if any of the following symptoms appear:

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Chest pain
  • Pounding or rapid heartbeat
  • Confusion
  • Hallucinations
  • Feeling dizzy or faint
  • Hives or rashes
  • Swelling of the tongue, lips, face or throat

Some individuals experience other adverse side effects of this medicine. The most common are listed below:

  • Intolerance to heat
  • Flushing
  • Constipation
  • Sweating and perspiration
  • Constricted pupils
  • Sedation
  • Dry mouth
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Itchiness
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Decreased libido
  • Impotence
  • Inability to achieve orgasm

What Are the Withdrawal Symptoms?

Withdrawal symptoms with this medication take longer to ease off than the withdrawal symptoms of other opiate drugs. However, these symptoms can be greatly reduced with a gradual detox. The most common withdrawal symptoms associated with this medication include the following:

  • Sensitivity to light
  • Tearing eyes
  • Dilated pupils
  • Runny nose
  • Dizziness
  • Yawning
  • Sneezing
  • Intolerance to cold
  • Sweating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hyperventilation
  • High blood pressure
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Hypersensitivity to pain
  • Restlessness, agitation, and nervousness
  • Tremors
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Sore joints or legs
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Possible relapse
  • Visual and auditory hallucinations
  • Chronic insomnia
  • Depression
  • Anxiety and panic attacks

Addiction to opiates is thought to cause tooth decay due to the common side effect of a dry mouth. This symptom is exacerbated by the fact that many of those with a substance use disorder neglect oral hygiene and regular dental exams. Curiously enough, methadone seems to have a beneficial effect on reproductive health.

U.S. FDA Black Box Warning

The following risks are outlined in the Food and Drug Administration’s black box warning included with this drug:

  • Opioid withdrawal symptoms can be present in children of pregnant women.
  • This drug can be addictive.
  • Accidental lethal overdose is possible.
  • This medicine can be risky when taken with alcohol or benzodiazepines.

What Are the Overdose Symptoms?

The symptoms below have been observed in people who have overdosed on this drug:

  • Pinpoint pupils
  • Sedation and unresponsiveness
  • Limp muscles
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Slow and shallow breathing
  • Cool, clammy and damp skin
  • Unconsciousness and coma

Although deaths related to this medication can occur, most result from mixing it with other drugs, particularly CNS depressants.

Opiate overdose can be treated with an opioid antagonist like naloxone or naltrexone. Administering an opiate antagonist is tricky. Too little will be ineffective, and too much could activate a sudden detox with severe withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone is the preferred treatment because it has a short half-life. If you administer too much and the patient goes into withdrawal, the effects will be short-lived.

Naloxone leaves the body quickly, so multiple dosing may be necessary to keep the patient out of an overdose. This is especially true with methadone. It stays in the body for a long time, and its effects can last for up to 24 hours. When the antagonist wears off, the person returns to a state of overdose and another dose must be given.

Does This Drug Produce Tolerance and Dependence?

The more of an opiate you ingest, the more your tolerance builds. Although tolerance to the pain-killing effects of this medication may build slowly, tolerance to the euphoric effect develops quickly. On the other hand, tolerance to sedation, constipation and respiratory depression may not develop at all.

Who Qualifies for Methadone Treatment Coverage?

Although brand-name formulations can be expensive, generic tablets are relatively cheap. Treatment at an outpatient clinic may be covered by private insurance or by Medicare or Medicaid. When prescribed for pain and dispensed at a pharmacy, the cost of this medicine is covered under Medicare Part D.

Part D Medicare does not, however, cover this medication when it’s dispensed in a clinic and used for medication-assisted recovery of opioid dependence. Eligibility for medication-assisted recovery with methadone is usually contingent on participation in a substance use disorder treatment program. Veterans in the Veteran’s Administration health care system may be eligible for medication-assisted recovery.

What Are Medication-Assisted Recovery Programs?

Medication-assisted recovery programs are clinics that dispense methadone, naltrexone, buprenorphine, and Suboxone. These drugs can help you to quit heroin and other opiates and are provided as part of treatment. This treatment is designed for patients who are now dependent on opiates or who have been dependent on them at some point in the past.

Overall, people who participate in medication-assisted recovery programs may be more successful in quitting heroin than those who do not. People who quit heroin without methadone are more likely to relapse. They also have a higher risk of an overdose after a period of abstinence or lower daily doses.

Methadone is considered a Schedule II opioid painkiller that’s used for pain management as well as opioid substance use disorder. This medicine treats pain and reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms. It’s particularly effective because of its long-acting properties. When the drug is taken in the morning, its effects can last all day.

Patients must report to the clinic daily to receive their dose. Because many clinics are closed on Sunday, however, take-home medication for one day is often provided. Patients may be required to undergo drug testing. They may also be required to attend substance use disorder groups and outside support meetings through organizations like Narcotics Anonymous.

With daily treatment, patients are relieved of opioid withdrawal symptoms as well as the feeling of being “high.” They are able to regain some stability in their lives and to learn new ways of living. All the time and energy that used to be spent finding and using drugs is now free. That energy can be channeled into recovery activities, checking out employment opportunities and spending quality time with friends and family.

How Can I Tell if I’m Addicted?

You know you’re addicted to opiates if you get unpleasant withdrawal symptoms whenever you try to quit. If you’ve been using heroin regularly for six or more months, you may be addicted.

Patients who take methadone may be more successful in quitting heroin than those who don’t. Opiates are highly addictive, and if you’re hooked, your body needs these drugs to function properly. Tapering off gradually under a doctor’s supervision is highly recommended. Going “cold turkey” can produce such intolerable side effects that you set yourself up for a relapse.

People who quit heroin while participating in a drug-assisted treatment program are less likely to relapse. If you’ve been clean for a while, your tolerance will be lower. You could be at risk for an accidental overdose if you resume using.

Methadone maintenance is not a cure for heroin addiction. Rather, it allows you to stabilize yourself and your life so that you can attend to the business of living. A methadone detox at some point in the future may be pursued.

If you want to quit heroin or any other opiate drug, don’t do it alone. Speak with your doctor and if necessary, get help. Many of those with a substance use disorder have quit using heroin and then entered drug rehab for addiction treatment. They now live clean, drug-free lives in recovery without having to use opiates.

How Heroin Kills You

The U.S. is facing a dangerous health crisis. Rates of heroin use and overdoses haven’t been so high since the 1970s. In 2017, more than 70,000 Americans died as a result of a drug overdose. Approximately 47,600 of those deaths were opioid-related fatalities, and 15,482 were heroin overdoses. Even these high statistics may not tell the whole story because they don’t count the deaths of people in states who don’t specify the drug on the death certificate after an overdose. Nor do the statistics take into account the drug users who died from exposure to the cold because they were too high to go indoors in below-zero temperatures or the individuals who committed suicide while they were on drugs.

It’s easy to think of heroin and other drugs as only affecting marginalized populations in poor neighborhoods with gangs and drug dealers. In reality, heroin use and overdoses affect all strata of American society from blue-collar employees to wealthiest celebrities. Even if you don’t believe that heroin overdoses directly impact your life, you’re at an increased likelihood of being indirectly affected by the heroin epidemic going on in the country. Communities with high levels of drug addiction tend to have the less educational achievement and more crime. Long-term heroin users at risk of an overdose not only do harm to themselves but to their friends and family as well.

How People Get Hooked on Heroin

Heroin is an opioid derived from morphine. The populations most susceptible to death from a heroin overdose are long-term users who suffer from a heroin addiction.

The initial decision to use heroin may not be a behavioral flaw. Heroin addiction is a sickness in which the brain becomes dependent on increasing levels of the drug to function even as it causes neurological breakdown and other physical symptoms. Sometimes, heroin addiction can spring from the overzealous prescription of painkillers. Heroin bought off the street is much cheaper than prescription drugs, so prescription pill addicts may turn to heroin to continue to get the high they felt before. Another reason for continued heroin use is to stave off the physically devastating side effects of withdrawal from the drug.

People addicted to heroin may have difficulty stopping their drug use and relapse often because heroin affects the dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a special chemical that makes pleasurable feelings radiate through the body. In short, heroin makes the user feel good. However, continued heroin use dulls the ability of the dopamine receptors to experience the same amount of pleasure from the drug. Over time, the user requires more and more heroin to get the same high. Eventually, the addicted individual consumes more heroin than their body can handle, oftentimes resulting in death. Many factors affect heroin addiction such as the individual’s environment, genetic makeup and whether they started drug use at an early age.

Heroin overdoses indirectly affect other individuals, especially children, and teenagers. Children who grow up observing heroin addiction and who have relatives who have overdosed on heroin are more likely to use the drug themselves. Starting any kind of drug use at an early age affects critical decision-making skills, learning, and judgment. Younger drug users are less likely to decline heroin when it’s offered and more likely to move on to heroin from a gateway drug like marijuana.

Indicators of a Heroin Addiction

As the common prerequisite for heroin overdose is an addiction to the drug, it’s beneficial to know the signs and symptoms of a heroin addict. Some symptoms are common among addicts, such as manipulation, lying, stealing, avoidance of family and friends and unexplained disappearances. Other symptoms include long sleeves to hide track marks from repeated injections, missing belts or shoelaces, trails of white powder, burnt spoons and missing prescription medications. If you notice valuable items in your house going missing at the same time, your loved one might be selling them for heroin. Belts and shoelaces go missing because the addict uses them to tie their arm and prep a vein for injection. Spoons get burnt when an addict puts the heroin in the spoon and slowly burns it with a flame to ready the substance for intravenous ingestion. If you see any of these signs, do your best to obtain and carry naloxone with you so that you can save your loved one from overdosing should that occur.

Signs of a Heroin Overdose

It’s important to know the signs of an overdose so that you can help the affected person. The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that relatives of known heroin addicts carry naloxone, an anti-overdose drug that can save lives.

Heroin can be ingested in multiple ways. It can be taken orally or injected under the skin or into muscles. Smoking and injecting heroin are the most dangerous methods because the drug enters the bloodstream more quickly and the effect is felt almost immediately. Sometimes, it may be difficult to know the root cause of a heroin addict’s death. Repeated injections can lead to deadly communicable diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Advanced cardiovascular disease can result in pulmonary embolisms and instant death.

It’s very important not to confuse signs of an overdose with signs of heroin withdrawal. Administering naloxone during heroin withdrawal can be deadly. Signs of withdrawal include agitation, insomnia, sweating, muscle pain and a craving for the drugs. This means that a friend or relative in withdrawal will be complaining of pain, awake for hours and hours on end, and exerting his or her best efforts to find more heroin to use.

In contrast, signs of overdosing are drastically different. Someone about to die from too much heroin intake will have difficulty breathing and take shallow breaths. This means that brain stem function is decreasing. The pupils will become very small, a condition is known as pinpoint pupils. The mouth becomes so dry that the tongue becomes discolored. The pulse becomes weaker and weaker, and as the body is deprived of oxygen, the skin and lips begin to turn blue. In some cases, the individual could enter a comatose state before death. If you see an individual exhibiting these symptoms such as gasping for air with a discolored tongue, bluish lips and pinpoint pupils, you should administer naloxone. It could save their life.

What Happens to the Body During a Heroin Overdose?

Heroin’s route upon its entrance into the body’s bloodstream takes it right to the individual’s brain. In the brain, it is converted into morphine and binds to the brain’s mu-opioid receptors. Mu-opioid receptors are located in the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The binding of morphine to the cerebral and cerebellar receptors is what causes slurred speech, slowed movement, delayed reactions and outbursts of uncontrolled violence from poor impulse control. However, when there is too much heroin, the converted morphine binds to the receptors in the brain stem. The brain stem is responsible for automatic breathing. When the brain stem is compromised, the individual enters into a state of severe respiratory depression and ceases to breathe. Respiratory arrest can lead to cardiac arrest. That’s how heroin kills you.

Intervening Factors in Deaths From a Heroin Overdose

Knowing how heroin kills you may help save you or someone else from an overdose. Unfortunately, naloxone may not always work. Sometimes, heroin overdose is the secondary cause of death, not the primary one. Many heroin users are abusing other drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine or prescription drugs.

Another intervening factor is a reluctance to seek medical help and attention. Even if you were doing drugs or committing illegal activity while your friend or relative was overdosing, don’t use that as an excuse to avoid calling the authorities. Many states now have Good Samaritan fatal overdose protection laws. These laws are a special form of legislation that allows individuals to call police and ambulance services without being subject to arrest or imprisonment. Statistics show that one of the most common reasons for failing to call 911 is fear of arrest by the police.

How You Can Help Prevent Heroin Overdose-Related Fatalities

Carrying naloxone and learning how to inject it is the quickest and surest way to help someone suffering from a heroin overdose. If you don’t have naloxone and you believe that someone is overdosing or entering respiratory distress, call 911 immediately. Explain the symptoms to the 911 operator in detail. Be sure to tell the 911 operator the victim’s weight, age, the amount of heroin they took if you can, and when they took it. An ambulance will come and take the affected person to the emergency room.

People who don’t regularly use drugs might not know what heroin actually looks like. Drug addicts can be manipulative and try to convince their loved ones that they’re not actually doing heroin. One of the ways that heroin kills you and the people close to you is through ignorance. Heroin is a white, brown or cream-colored powder that is cut with sugar or powdered milk to make it more palatable than its purer form, which is quite bitter. As powdered heroin looks very similar to powdered sugar or crushed candy, it’s important to keep very small children away from the presence of heroin users and out of users’ homes. For children, the oral ingestion of heroin, even in small quantities, can lead to a fatal overdose. The darker form of heroin, known as “black tar,” is the type of heroin that’s injected.

At the emergency room, try to be a supportive presence. Overdosing can be a scary experience, not just for the person witnessing but for the person going through it as well. Emergency room doctors will probably run diagnostic tests like CAT scans, blood tests, and ECGs. Treatment options include intravenous fluids, naloxone and breathing support with oxygen therapy. Feel free to ask the doctors and nurses questions about follow-up care and treatment at home. If treated quickly, patients can be discharged after 24 to 48 hours in the hospital. Longer hospital stays occur when the heroin has caused significant organ damage. Some hospitals have programs in which the drug user can go from the hospital directly to a private rehab facility if they have health insurance. While overdosing can be scary, it just might be the “rock bottom” situation that an addict needs to push them into getting help for good.

Another way you can help is by getting educated. Familiarize yourself with the symptoms of heroin use, withdrawal from the drug and overdosing. Support your loved ones in their fight against addiction. You can’t fight their battles for them, but you can encourage them to go to inpatient or outpatient rehab and get clean. Let them know that they’re not alone in their fight and that getting clean is possible. Through proper care in the right treatment center, your loved one can kick their heroin habit and become sober.

Drugged Driving Statistics

Driving under the influence is one of the most preventable crimes in the United States. Especially in the age of ride-hailing services and apps, it’s easy to avoid drugged or drunk driving, yet statistics from the Bureau of Transportation report that three people are killed in alcohol-related crashes every two hours. In the same survey, the Bureau cites that in 2010, 4 million American adults said they’d driven drunk at least once.

Many people are aware of the effects that alcohol and illicit drugs can have on the human body, but many legal and doctor-prescribed drugs also affect a person’s driving ability, making accidents far more likely to occur. If there is any intoxicant present in a person’s body, they are considered to be driving under the influence. Not only is it illegal to drive high or drunk, possibly resulting in getting a DUI citation or arrest, but it’s also incredibly dangerous. Drugged driving can bring harm to more than just the user, and the ramifications of doing so can have an impact on many people’s lives.

What Is Drugged Driving?

Drugged driving is driving under the influence of any intoxicant whatsoever. Alcohol and marijuana use are two of the leading causes of DUIs in the United States, but drugged driving is not limited just to these two substances. Illegal drugs like heroin, methamphetamine, LSD and cocaine significantly impair someone’s ability to drive, and prescribed pharmaceuticals of any sort can do the same. Even some store-bought or over-the-counter medications can alter a person’s consciousness enough to turn driving into a more dangerous activity.

Most people know the moral and legal consequences of drunk driving, but they may be unaware that even medication prescribed by a doctor can result in an accident or DUI if misused. It’s wise to ask your doctor if a medication that he or she prescribes to you will affect your ability to drive, and, if so, how long after taking it you have to wait before you can operate a vehicle.

Drugged or drunk driving is a common occurrence in some people’s lives. Many believe that just one drink or one hit of pot won’t affect their driving ability, but even a small amount of alcohol or drugs in the body can be enough to alter someone’s motor abilities and reaction times. Statistics from a 2013 – 2014 Governors Highway Safety Association roadside survey indicate that nearly 22 percent of all weekend drivers were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This number could be much higher, however, as it’s substantially more challenging to test drivers for drug use than for alcohol in roadside conditions.

How Many Accidents Are Caused by Drugged Driving Each Year?

In 2016, 20.7 million drivers drove under the influence of some substance, and 11.8 million of them were under the influence of something other than alcohol. Every year, millions of people are arrested for drugged driving. A survey by the GHSA reported that 44 percent of drivers involved in fatal traffic accidents were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Not all of these drugs were considered illicit; over-the-counter drugs and doctor-prescribed pharmaceuticals were also accounted for in these statistics.

State law enforcement agencies are having a challenging time adjusting to changing marijuana laws. Though still illegal on a federal level, many states have legalized pot for medicinal or recreational use. With marijuana use increasingly becoming legalized throughout the United States, the rate of drugged driving accidents each year has increased. From 2007 to 2014, states saw a 48 percent increase in drivers testing positive for THC, the psychoactive compound contained in marijuana.

How Do Drugs and Alcohol Affect a Driver?

Every drug, including alcohol, affects a person’s ability to drive a vehicle, but not every intoxicating substance goes about this in the same way. Each substance changes various aspects of the brain and other bodily systems, making driving dangerous because of the possibility to react differently than while sober.

Alcohol, for instance, affects drivers’ central nervous systems by limiting activity in the brain’s neocortex and cerebellum. These parts of the brain are responsible for high-level decision making, coordination, and motor skills. Alcohol greatly reduces these systems’ ability to function, resulting in blurred or doubled vision, slurred speech, impaired balance and the possibility of blacking out, to name a few symptoms.

Marijuana affects different parts of the brain that respond to the plant’s cannabinoids. Memory loss, paranoia, hallucinations and a loss of coordination are some symptoms of pot use that may cause a driver to weave in and out of lanes, not respond to traffic lights or signs, or briefly lose consciousness, all of which can be incredibly dangerous when operating a vehicle.

Opiates, a widespread class of medication that has both prescribed varieties, i.e., Oxycodone, Oxycontin, Dilaudid and Vicodin, as well as illicit forms like heroin and fentanyl, affect a person’s brain differently than alcohol and marijuana. However, symptoms like memory loss and incredibly marked drowsiness can cause a driver’s abilities to become significantly impaired. Other illegal drugs like methamphetamine or cocaine can cause a person to become agitated, aggressive and reckless, to name only some of their effects. A driver under the influence of these or any other illicit drugs can cause injury or death to themselves or others.

Many people who drive drunk have other intoxicants in their systems. These substances can combine to create an even stronger effect on the user, so anyone driving intoxicated is substantially more likely to cause a potentially fatal accident.

Who Are the Most at Risk for Drugged Driving?

Anyone who drinks or uses any form of drugs and then chooses to drive is at risk of getting into a severe accident. However, men are much more likely than women to be involved in an accident involving drugs or alcohol. In 2010, men committed four out of every five DUIs, and 32 percent of these belonged to males between the ages of 21 and 34.

Another group that’s more at risk than others is those who engage in drug or alcohol use on a regular basis. People who binge drink, which is having more than five drinks in a setting for men or four drinks for women, are more likely to find themselves behind the wheel of a car more often, resulting in a much higher rate of accidents. This group was responsible for over 80 percent of drunk driving accidents in 2010.

Teens are especially susceptible to drugged driving. Their lack of experience with driving as well as with drug and alcohol use results in a particularly deadly combination. Teens exhibit less regard for speed limits and safe driving habits than adults, and drugs and alcohol can especially exacerbate this behavior. Car crashes are the leading cause of death for teens between the ages of 16 and 19. According to a 2016 survey by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 12 percent of high school seniors reported driving under the influence of marijuana while 9 percent said they’d driven drunk.

Some people believe that they have a high tolerance for liquor or drugs and therefore are better suited to drive a car inebriated. This belief, however, is not true. Any amount of alcohol or drugs in a person’s system can result in a DUI or arrest by the police. The legal blood alcohol content, or BAC, limit in most states is .08  although a police officer can arrest anyone who’s showing signs of intoxication even if their BAC is below that percentage.

What Are the Penalties for Drugged Driving?

The most significant penalty that can occur because of drugged or drunk driving is causing death to yourself or others. Vehicles of any sort can turn into deadly weapons if operated by a driver who’s drunk or high. It’s for this reason that every state has strict laws regarding DUIs and DWIs.

Sixteen states have zero tolerance laws making it illegal for any measurable amount of a drug to be present in a driver’s system while operating a vehicle. Seven states have “per se” laws that make it illegal for any measurable amount of drugs to be in a person’s body outside the legal limits. States are also making more specific regulations regarding the parameters and legality of marijuana use.

Penalties for breaking these laws can be strict. Citations, arrests, jail or prison time, hefty fines, DUI classes, and rehab are just some of the punishments a person convicted of drugged driving can expect if they are pulled over or involved in an accident.

How Can Drugged Driving Be Prevented?

There are many ways to prevent drugged driving. The simplest and by far the most effective way is to never get behind the wheel when you’re under the influence of any substance whatsoever. If you’ve had anything to drink or you’ve consumed any intoxicant, find a designated driver to take you home. A ride-hailing or taxi service can take you where you need to go without you having to drive at all. If you’re in addiction recovery, it’s strongly suggested that you avoid going to places or events where alcohol and drugs are readily available.

It’s also important to not let anyone you know drive drunk or high. If you see a friend about to drive in this state, and if you’re not under the influence of anything, offer to take them where they need to go or get a taxi for them. Even if you’re not intoxicated, it’s important to pay attention to the road when you’re driving, especially on popular drinking days like the weekends and holidays. Always be sure to wear your seat belt.

Despite alcohol being legal to purchase by anyone over 21, the legal status of most drugs varies considerably. Marijuana is legal in only some states and still illegal on the federal level. Doctor-prescribed drugs, especially opiates, are highly controlled and illegal to use without a prescription. Illicit drugs, which include but are not limited to heroin, cocaine, fentanyl, LSD, inhalants, and methamphetamine, are entirely illegal no matter the state. Using these drugs can result in DUIs, injuries or fatal accidents.

Drugs and alcohol can significantly inhibit your ability to drive. With many states legalizing marijuana use, and with more and more people using it, drivers need to be aware of the risks that can come from drugged driving. With more ways available to people to travel without driving under the influence, drugged driving is more avoidable now than it ever has been.

America’s Heroin Epidemic

How does taking opioids make someone feel? We usually avoid asking this question when discussing recreational drug use because nobody wants to encourage drug experimentation, let alone drug addiction. When the topic is addressed, it’s easy for people to assume that only weak-minded, reckless people turn to drugs.

Sadly, not many people are prepared to understand that drug addiction, particularly heroin and opioid addiction, has risen to epidemic proportions. America’s heroin epidemic affects all of us. It could be your significant other, your neighbor or even your child. No one ever thinks that it can happen to them or someone they love. However, heroin addiction doesn’t discriminate.

Dating back to the 1990s, pharmaceutical companies claimed that patients taking certain opioid medications would not become addicted. As such, health care providers began prescribing opioids for everything from sprained ankles to post-partum pain control. With this increased rate of opioid prescriptions, it slowly became clear that these types of medications were highly addictive and often led to substance abuse issues. As addiction levels rise, so does the need to understand that opioids, legally or illegally, led the U.S. to its current heroin epidemic.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, estimates that the economic burden brought about by prescription opioid and heroin use comes in at $78.5 billion. This figure includes addiction treatment, the cost of health care, legal expenses and lost productivity.

Understanding the Epidemic

The opioid epidemic has been described as the deadliest drug crisis in American history. According to the CDC, more than 115 people die from opioid overdoses every day.

People used to think that only unemployed people from broken homes turned to heroin to escape reality. No longer is opioid use limited to low-income areas; it has transcended into all geographic areas, affecting people of all ages and ethnicities. Now, the faces of heroin addiction include veterans who cannot find work after leaving the military, moms who needed pain relief after giving birth and even people who had oral surgery.

Many people who become addicted to heroin do not have a prior history of substance misuse. Substance use disorder is not linear or predictable. Some people who were introduced to drugs through prescription pain relievers end up on heroin. Health care officials say that the ever-increasing abuse of prescribed painkillers leads users to the street when they no longer can obtain the drug legally. Unfortunately, because heroin is so addictive, it leads to increased drug-seeking behavior.

Those who misuse the drug and become addicted look for a stronger and possibly cheaper high. Heroin is both, but it is also deadly. It can be laced with other drugs that cause death. Deaths from heroin overdose doubled between 2010 and 2012. The death toll also increased dramatically in 2014 when heroin mixed with fentanyl became more common. Fentanyl, when combined with heroin, is lethal. Users can die within seconds of ingestion.

Although the issue is multifaceted, drug makers and physicians play a key role in this epidemic. After all, if there were no pharmaceutical opioids, physicians wouldn’t be able to prescribe them. That is not to say that they are responsible for another person’s substance use disorder, but the snowballing effect of prescription drug use and not being able to gain access to them has led many Americans to heroin.

Veterans and Heroin Use

Veterans have also been affected by America’s opioid epidemic. Untreated chronic pain has led many veterans to seek out pain relief on the street. After being discharged from their service, some veterans find themselves unemployed and homeless. Depression and the need to escape create the perfect backdrop for substance use disorders. According to the VA, it is estimated that 68,000 veterans are currently struggling with opioid use disorders, and when they can no longer gain access to prescription pain medication legally, they may turn to heroin.

Heroin’s Effects

Heroin can be snorted, injected or swallowed. The speed at which heroin reaches the brain depends on the method taken. Users who inject heroin can feel its high within seven to eight seconds. Astonishingly, not all first-time users experience the feeling of euphoria we hear about. Since heroin slows down the digestive tract, some users may become nauseated and vomit.

Many users report that the high they experience is similar to the feeling after a satisfying sexual encounter, only much more intense. It is this sensation that drives users back to the drug. The brain cells that are affected by heroin eventually become damaged, causing the inability to feel pleasure without heroin. In turn, these cells create the intense craving heroin users have. Unfortunately, the more that individuals take the drug, the larger amounts they need to achieve a high. Often, users become convinced that they can’t function normally without the drug.

Symptoms of Heroin Addiction

It is not surprising that an estimated 23 percent of all people who try heroin will become dependent. The brain’s receptors change almost immediately upon use, leading to an inexplicable high within minutes. Since heroin produces a downer effect, using it produces an almost instantaneous feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Similar to other kinds of opiates, heroin prohibits the brain’s ability to feel pain.

Initially, heroin users can hide the signs of their habit. Over time, family members and co-workers may start to notice the signs of drug use, which include cycles of alertness followed by falling asleep, constricted pupils, rapid behavioral changes and shortness of breath.

The above red flags are not unique to heroin. There are more definitive signs that a heroin user exhibits and these typically include possession of paraphernalia used to prepare the drug. In addition, behavioral changes become more evident as drug users sink further into the substance abuse cycle. Individuals may lie to cover up their addiction and avoid making eye contact. Speech may be incoherent. Performance at work and school may decline, resulting in unemployment or expulsion.

Long-Term Effects of Heroin Use

When someone continues to use heroin despite the deadly consequences, they can develop all kinds of health issues as follows:

Central nervous system

Heroin’s impact on a user’s brain is profound. The receptors that produce chemical signals for happiness and pleasure shrink. People who use heroin for long periods of time also show deterioration of white matter on CT scans of the brain. As such, their ability to make sound decisions and regulate their behavior is altered.

Respiratory system

Like other opiates, heroin slows respiratory function. People who use heroin may breathe much slower and shallower when they are high. If someone uses too much, they may stop breathing. The risk of cardiac arrest is one of the major health risks of heroin. Although it can occur the first time someone uses heroin, chronic users usually need to take higher doses to feel the same effect, which increases the risk of respiratory failure.

Cardiovascular system

Large doses of heroin can cause sudden death. Long-term heroin users also face a slew of other cardiovascular issues including vein damage. With each injection, the damage is done to the veins and arteries that lead to the heart. In turn, infection and abscesses can occur. According to the CDC, approximately 32 percent of heroin users in New York City suffer from a drug-induced abscess.

Digestive system

Heroin can also negatively impact the user’s digestive tract. Its sedative properties slow the movement of food and water, causing constipation and bloating. Users may not disclose these symptoms nor seek treatment, putting them at greater risk for developing intestinal blockages.

What’s Being Done

The FDA believes a multidisciplinary approach to treatment would help bridge the gap between substance use disorders and treatment. Stricter limitation of the frequency and the number of opioid prescriptions would force people to look for alternative ways of pain management, including cognitive therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy.

The CDC has also partnered with many states to combat both opioid addiction and heroin use. By educating the public and setting up safe zones for those who are suffering from addiction, the hope is that users will go to those safe zones to inject or use as opposed to getting high on the street.

The Opioid Crisis Response Act of 2018 marks a breakthrough in the fight against the heroin epidemic in the U.S. Federal action is intended to make people more aware of the crisis and provide resources for those who want to get clean. However, one the largest hindrances to this bill being passed are funding. If the legislation is successful, some pharmaceutical companies could be bankrupt, thus making treatment of other chronic medical conditions more difficult.

Getting Treatment

Behavioral and pharmacological treatment can be effective for heroin users. Comprehensive treatment allows users to remain abstinent and restore a level of normalcy into their lives.

Heroin users must complete a detoxification program prior to entering a long-term treatment program. During detoxification, patients may be given medications to reduce the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, which can include pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Even though the detoxification period is not a treatment for the addiction itself, it is an effective first step.

After detox, many users manage their cravings with medication. Several medications have been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. Since they work on the same receptors as heroin in the brain, they are considered safe and effective. They satisfy cravings while blocking opioid receptors in the brain; even if a user relapses and takes heroin, they would not experience a high, which can help them on their road to recovery.

The most common medication used for recovery is methadone. Taken orally, it is slow-acting and prevents withdrawal symptoms. If the user is not at an inpatient facility, the medication is usually dispensed through an approved outpatient treatment center on a daily basis.

Buprenorphine has also been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. This medication is only available through certified physicians. However, it also eliminates the need for daily trips to a methadone clinic. Generic options are available, making it a more affordable treatment option.

Getting treatment for any substance use disorder may be frightening and, for some, embarrassing. People with long-standing emotional problems or chronic pain are usually at a higher risk of developing substance use disorders. However, that should never dissuade anyone from asking for help. The good news is that heroin addiction is treatable. The first step is asking for help and admitting that there is a problem. Both inpatient and intensive outpatient treatments are available for those in need.

How Long Does Heroin Stay In Your System?

What Is Heroin?

Heroin is a controlled substance in the United States, and the USDA classifies it as a Class-1 highly addictive drug. It is a plant-based but heavily manufactured and altered opioid drug derived from the poppy flower. Heroin is processed and cut with other substances before it gets to the consumer. Users of the drug typically smoke, snort or inject it intravenously. The immediate effects are feelings of euphoria and sedation.

Health Impacts of Heroin in Your System

Opiate addiction is a significant problem around the world and in recent years, opioid abuse has been on the climb, leading to numerous cases of overdose. These types of drugs have a negative impact on energy levels and sex drive as well as the weight and functions of major organs such as the liver and kidneys.

Most significant, however, is the effect of opiates on brain function. As this drug is used for its effects on brain chemistry, it can cause changes to the way your brain operates and how it sends and receives signals.

In fact, the biggest danger of heroin abuse results from the drug’s ability to block or alter signals in your brain that control important bodily functions. Emergencies from opioid abuse often stem from breathing difficulties associated with overdose. The reason for this is that heroin can change the chemistry of the brain stem and cause depressed breathing.

Parts of your brain control the basic functions of your body, such as breathing and the beating of your heart, so that you don’t have to think about it. Heroin can alter and interrupt these signals that are telling your body to do what it needs to do to survive.

Drug Testing in the USA

In the United States, drug testing is used in many different types of situations. This is a common reason people may ask how long drugs will stay in your system. Many employers require pre-hire drug testing, and some also perform random drug tests on their employees.

Types of Tests

There are several ways to test for opiates and other drugs in the human body. Depending on the type of test performed, heroin can show up on the tests results whether a person has used recently or been abstinent for some time. Here’s a closer look at some of the tests currently in use:

Blood

Blood tests are one of the best ways to test for substances in the body, such as prescription or illegal drugs. This is not the most common type of drug test used, however. Blood testing is sometimes used by law enforcement, but it’s most commonly utilized in emergency medicine. In fact, blood testing is rarely used for legal issues and more often for medical diagnostic purposes.

The invasive nature of this test has raised constitutional issues. Of course, blood testing involves taking blood from a person’s body, and this requires either consent or due process of law, including a court order. While blood tests are great for medical purposes to determine what is going on in the body right now, they are not ideal for detecting prior opioid use because opiates may not be picked up in the bloodstream if it’s only been a few hours after use.

Urine

The most common type of drug test used in the United States is the urinalysis test. This is the preferred method for employment testing and probation and parole testing. This is because it is a fast and reliable form of testing that is also far cheaper to perform than blood and hair tests. Additionally, there are fewer legal and constitutional concerns when using urinalysis.

Hair

Hair testing is not especially common, but it does have a significant history of use in the U.S., primarily in the court systems. This method does have one benefit over other methods: While blood and urine tests have a more limited time frame to work in, hair testing can detect drugs months after their use.

Saliva

Testing of oral fluid is another somewhat common testing method for illegal and prescription drugs. This method involves using a cheek swab to collect a sample of saliva and other oral fluids. The test works much the same as a blood or urine test and detects the same content as other forms of testing.

The issue with saliva testing is that it can be a less reliable method due to medical conditions or drug side effects that may cause dry mouth. If a good sample can’t be collected, then the test will fail. In certain instances, the very drug being tested for can cause side effects that will negate the saliva test. This type of test isn’t typically the first choice when it comes to heroin detection.

Understanding Half-life

In science, half-life refers to the time it takes for a substance to be reduced by half, either by decay or through elimination within the human body. In medicine, half-life is used in formulas to determine proper doses and duration for treatment. For example, an antibiotic would have to be administered at a certain dose and frequency to ensure that antibodies remain present long enough to effectively fight the bacteria or infection.

The half-life of a drug determines how long the substance will be present and detectable in your body. If you are not a chemistry person, the concept can seem confusing, but it is fairly simple. Essentially, different substances take longer to clear from your body than others.

On one hand, there is the time it takes for the substance to be cleared to the extent that you no longer feel the effects of the drug, and on the other hand, the time it takes for it to not be detectable by tests. As an example, you could take a medication for pain and at the end of its half-life, you may feel your pain return and no longer feel the effects of the drug. However, a blood test would still show the presence of pain medication.

Variables to How Long Heroin Will Stay in Your System

 

When people ask how long a particular drug will remain in their system, it is not a simple answer that is the same for everyone. The best answer is always going to be a range because not all people are the same and not all drug mixtures are the same. Below are some of the many factors to take into consideration when asking how long a drug will be detectable in your system.

Age

Your age has a lot to do with your metabolism and the way your body processes substances you take in. An older person with a slower metabolism may show the presence of a drug longer than a younger person with a fast metabolism. Additionally, a person who has not yet reached full maturity may process the drug at a different rate than an adult. This is one reason that addiction in youth is of particular concern.

Weight

It stands to reason that weight would be a factor in the half-life of heroin and other drugs. Doses for medication are often based on weight. The reason for this is that the dose may need to be larger to have the intended effect on a larger person while a smaller person may get stronger effects from a drug at a smaller dose.

Body Fat

Body fat plays a role in how your body metabolizes what you put into it and how it breaks substances down. Excessive body fat impacts circulation, digestion, and liver and kidney function.

Hydration

Hydration plays a key role in removing toxins from your body. Good hydration is very effective in reducing the duration of time that drugs can be detected in urine. Using water to clean the urine is so effective that many people will drink large quantities of water in an attempt to pass a drug test. However, many tests will count clear urine as an automatic fail on the assumption that the subject was trying to falsify the results.

Drug Quality

This is one of the biggest variables in determining both the effect of the drug and how long it remains in your system. The fact that heroin is an illegal drug means that supplies are not checked for quality or held to an FDA standard. When using black market products, there is little way to know the purity and strength of the drug itself.

As drugs like cocaine and heroin are cut with other substances, the actual volume of the drug can vary. Think of it in the same way as proof in alcohol terminology. A 4% ABV will have a different effect on your body than a 90% grain alcohol. Similarly, heroin of low purity will break down in your body faster than a higher concentration.

Health Factors

One individual may process heroin in a different way depending on personal health issues. A diabetic, for example, will break things down in the body in different ways and at different rates. A person with blood and circulation issues may also take longer to clear the drug from their body.

Use History

The effect of a particular drug can have a lot to do with a person’s history of use. Consider that a dose for a first-time user may have a much stronger impact than the same dose for someone who has dealt with addiction for many years. One component of drug abuse is the perceived need for more and more as time goes on. Unfortunately, this is what leads to many overdoses.

While a lifelong user may process the drug differently, the bigger issue is their likely increased dosage. If a person is consuming higher and higher amounts to try and get a certain high, the volume in their body will likely take longer to process through the system.

How Long Does Heroin Stay in Your System?

Taking all of the above into account, we are talking about a drug with a very short half-life. In most cases, it will be undetectable in urine after only a couple of days. Blood and saliva tests are especially poor testing methods for heroin. In fact, testing blood and oral fluids may yield a negative result within only five to six hours of taking the drug. The most effective test available for detecting drug use over time is hair follicle testing, which has been reported to detect heroin in the body for up to three months after the last use.

So, when considering how long the drug stays in your system, the answer really depends on the test. You can think of two days and up to three months as the two extremes. However, most tests will only be able to detect heroin in your system for a period of two to seven days.

Opioids & Heroin Epidemic

opioid and heroin epidemicThe opioid epidemic is a serious problem in America today. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, prescription opioid drugs were touted as low-risk solutions for chronic pain and other conditions. Thousands upon thousands of people all across the country were led to assume that opioid drugs were relatively safe solutions to temporary or chronic pain, and these days, almost everyone in America knows somebody whose life has been negatively affected by these dangerous drugs.

As the use of prescription opioid drugs became more and more widespread, another equally destructive problem continued to simmer in the background: heroin abuse. In recent years, these two disparate issues have combined into a maelstrom that is ravaging the country. By learning more about the origins of the opioid epidemic, you can insulate yourself against the dangers that this mounting trend poses.

What Are Opioids?

Opioids are a class of drugs that block pain by directly interacting with pain circuits in the brain. In addition to reducing the sensation of pain, these drugs also produce a euphoric high that quickly becomes addictive. When opioid drugs are used in their prescribed concentrations, they can be effective short-term tools for fighting pain, but abusing these drugs quickly results in addiction.

The original opioid was opium, which was used in the ancient world for analgesic and recreational purposes. Opium is extracted from the bud of the poppy flower, and it is also known as the “milk of the poppy.” While opium itself isn’t widely used in the West anymore, every type of synthetic opioid is in some way derived from the substance. For instance, morphine was one of the first isolate opioids to be extracted from opium, and it is still widely used in medical settings today.

Morphine is much more powerful than normal opium, and the first signs of opioid abuse in America began with cases of morphine addiction in the mid-20th century. However, another synthetic opioid known as oxycodone rapidly supplanted morphine as the go-to drug for cases of pain that were moderate to severe. Today, oxycodone is widely known by its brand names OxyContin and Percocet, and it is one of the main drivers of the opioid epidemic.

As medical drugs like morphine and oxycodone gained popularity in the mainstream, another type of opioid steadily crept into American homes from the shadows. Known as heroin, this morphine derivative is of much lower quality than other types of opioid drugs, and since it is made by criminal drug gangs, there is no way for end users to guarantee that their supply is safe. This drug is usually cut with cheaper substances, and long-term users often inject it into their bodies with needles that may or may not be safe.

Heroin powder is white in its pure form, but most types of street heroin are brown due to additives. An even more insidious type of this drug is also available to street users: black tar heroin. It is either gummy or hard as a rock and derives its name from its black color. This type of heroin is the cheapest, but it is also more likely to be filled with pollutants than any other form of this street drug.

In recent years, however, a street drug that’s even more dangerous than heroin has made its debut. While fentanyl is used in hospitals under extreme circumstances, this drug is also manufactured in China and other countries and smuggled into the United States for illicit use. If fentanyl were just another opioid like oxycodone or morphine, it would be easier to lump this drug into the existing opioid crisis. However, fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is much stronger than others traditionally manufactured in the pharmaceutical industry.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated that fentanyl is 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine. As an abused substance, fentanyl had its debut as an incredibly potent designer drug that was mainly used by wealthy coastal elites. As prices of fentanyl have dropped, however, it has been much more widely used.

These days, it’s common to find fentanyl included in bags of street heroin. Many users are unaware of the presence of this drug in their supply, and they may choose to use their regular dose immediately upon receiving a new bag of drugs that has fentanyl in it. The results of this choice can be disastrous. Because fentanyl is so much stronger than normal heroin, it’s far easier to overdose on heroin that has been spiked with this highly potent synthetic drug.

What Is Fueling the Epidemic?

There are a number of factors that are contributing to the ongoing prevalence of the opioid epidemic in the United States. It’s possible to trace the origins of this pressing social issue back to earlier days of heroin abuse in the United States. During the waning decades of the 20th century, heroin became more and more popular throughout the country. When opium production spiked in Afghanistan in the years following 9/11, this problem only became worse.

Today, it appears that a significant amount of heroin is still coming into the U.S. from foreign countries. While cocaine and marijuana seizures on the country’s borders have decreased in recent years, heroin seizures have increased in some areas. Additionally, although there is no statistical information yet available on fentanyl seizures along the border, a U.S. citizen was recently arrested while attempting to smuggle nearly 11,500 fentanyl pills across the San Ysidro Port of Entry. Fentanyl is so powerful that a batch of pills of that size could easily poison a sizeable town.

Despite the fact that fentanyl poses such a danger to users, companies in China and other countries continue to produce this drug. In many cases, these companies often sell fentanyl directly to American citizens over the dark web. In other situations, fentanyl is smuggled into the country for illicit use. However, increased awareness of the dangers of this drug is minimizing the domestic market for fentanyl.

Historically, one of the biggest impediments to halting the opioid crisis has been domestic opioid manufacturers. For instance, the manufacturers of OxyContin, Purdue Pharma, once claimed in their official materials that their prescription opioids were safer than morphine and other types of opioid drugs. These types of misguided marketing campaigns led many doctors to believe that some opioids were safer than others. In many parts of the country, prescriptions for these drugs increased. For example, in the state of West Virginia, 110 opioid prescriptions were written for every 100 people in 2013 at the height of the opioid crisis. While certainly not all of these prescriptions were illegitimate, the sheer number of pills being prescribed made the drugs much more widely available for use.

The rise of prescription painkillers has even had a bleed-over effect into heroin abuse. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), using prescription opioid drugs increases the likelihood that you will use heroin. This phenomenon is partially fueled by the fact that this drug is generally cheaper than prescription opioids, and it’s easy to find a supply of heroin even when your doctor refuses to prescribe you any more opioids.

To briefly recap, here are the most prominent reasons why the opioid crisis is still a significant problem in the United States:

  • Medical: Doctors have prescribed much higher doses of opioids than are safe for extended periods of time.
  • Smuggling: Many tons of opioids have come over the U.S. border in recent decades. These drugs continue to be smuggled into the country.
  • Plentiful supply: The dangers of opioids are becoming better known, but these drugs are still widely produced and prescribed.
  • Prescription and illicit overlap: Since both heroin and prescription opioid drugs are widely available, it’s easy for addicts to remain addicted.

What Is Being Done

In recent years, greater attention has been paid to the problems that have arisen from increased opioid drug use in the United States. The Trump Administration declared that the opioid epidemic is a Public Health Emergency in 2017. This declaration has brought more attention to the blight of opioid drugs in American communities, and members of the Trump administration have begun coordinating with local officials around the country. Alongside the highest office in the land, policymakers and medical professionals across the United States are leading a national conversation focused on how to best combat this issue in local communities that each face their own unique problems.

The greater emphasis on border security has also helped decrease the supply of opioids entering our country illegally. While keeping illicit opioids from passing through our points of entry will ultimately require the help of other nations, every border seizure of heroin or fentanyl is another batch of drugs that won’t make it into the hands of Americans who suffer from opioid addiction. The incoming Obrador administration in Mexico has promised to work with the U.S. government to fight the power of the cartels in Central and South America. In addition, better diplomatic relations with China will inevitably lead to decreased fentanyl production.

An increased public awareness of the danger that opioids pose has been the most effective measure in curbing the spread of this epidemic. While stopping the drug supply is one half of the equation when it comes to stamping out the opioid menace, education is another critical part of this initiative. An informed populace will be less likely to make decisions that are harmful, and adults who have been educated regarding the dangers of opioids will pass their knowledge down to their children. In decades past, Americans were largely unaware of the dangers that opioids posed to themselves and their communities. However, the American people have woken up to the problem and many are actively working to find a solution.

Increased prevalence of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) in prescription pills has made it harder for people to abuse drugs like OxyContin and Percocet. However, ADFs aren’t present in the majority of prescription opioids, and they aren’t present in any illicit drugs like fentanyl or heroin.

If more people become aware of the dangers of opioid drugs, and if fewer opioids are made available to the populace, this fire will naturally extinguish itself. In the raging blaze that is opioid addiction, the drugs themselves are the wood and ignorance about the dangers of opiates is the oxygen. When starved of these vital components, any fire has no choice but to go out. By surrounding this problem from all sides, we are making the gradual destruction of this danger to our well-being a guaranteed inevitability.

Vermont Opioid Epidemic

On June 6th, 2017 Dutchess County of New York State filed a lawsuit against 11 pharmaceutical companies on several allegations regarding their production and distribution of prescription opioid painkillers. The lawsuit alleges that pharmaceutical companies have used deceitful tactics to market prescription opioid painkillers, an epidemic that has swept across the nation resulting in several deaths that only continue to increase by the year. Keep in mind, considering the date of the lawsuit, that nothing has come of the it and Dutchess County is not necessarily setting a precedent as 5 other New York State counties have filed similar lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies and individual providers. There are 62 counties in New York State.

vermont opioid epidemicAs has become the norm in a capitalist society like the United States, money is a powerful and nearly undefeated entity. How often do you see money being the driving force behind evil and selfish acts? It’s safe to assume money is the driving force behind the companies and providers turning their back on a public health crisis, even if it didn’t start that way. Addiction is a disease, as is cancer, and the former is much easier to turn your back on.

In addition to the lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies, Dutchess County has named a handful of prescribing providers alleging that they were responsible for promoting opioids for sale and distribution locally and nationally. Dutchess County Legislator, Jerry Landisi, is quoted saying “We have been fighting this war on drugs and addiction, but the enemy has been supplied by these pharmaceutical companies who have chosen to put profit ahead of patient safety.”

The problem is spreading and there does not seem to be an end in sight. Several states are seeing the devastating effects of the opioid epidemic, including Vermont. In fact, Vermont ranks ninth among the National Safety Council’s top 10 states with the highest heroin fatality rates per capita.

So, what gives them a right to blame the companies and prescribers? Is it pure ignorance? As it is for many professionally licensed providers, there are annual continuing education requirements. Any responsible doctor would take note of the rise in deaths due to prescription opioid use.

Let’s look at the numbers

National Heroin/Opioid Statistics

  • In 1999 there were 7,523 deaths due to prescription opioids
  • In 2015 there were 29,728 deaths due to prescription opioids
  • In 1999 there were 2,675 deaths due to illicit opioids
  • In 2015 there were 19,884 deaths due to illicit opioids

If you’re wondering why pharmaceutical companies and individual providers are being held accountable, the above statistics should be telling. Not only have patients become addicted to pain management medications prescribed by their doctors, they seem to be seeking out the drug after the prescription has lapsed.

To the naysayers that may point to our population growth in America, which has grown 14% between 1999 and 2015. The population growth of 14% pales in comparison to the 295% increase in prescription opioid deaths over the same time frame. If we’re aiming for population control then we have the answer.

There are some states that are considered to be doing it “right”, most notably, the state of Vermont, which is just a mere ninety miles from the center of Dutchess County, NY.

Now that we’re shifting away from the most recent lawsuit in New York, let’s see what their neighbors are up to, besides filing lawsuits.

Vermont Opioid Statistics

  • In 2010 there were 38 deaths in Vermont due to prescription opioids
  • In 2016 there were 38 deaths in Vermont due to prescription opioids

Wait, the opioid deaths did not increase 295% in Vermont? Yes, the same number of people died at the hands of prescription drugs but they must be doing something “right” in Vermont.

Before we dive into the treatment programs and legislation associated with Vermont’s success let’s widen the spectrum again briefly. On a national level, for those addicted to opioids the people closest to them are the most dangerous enablers. In 2015, a survey determined that 36% of people that misused a prescription pain reliever received the drug directly from their doctor. Another 54% of misuses were taken, bought or given to the person by a friend or relative. The remaining 10% fell into the following categories:

  • 9% bought from a drug dealer or stranger
  • 9% obtained the prescription pain reliever “some other way”

It’s not the dark alley dealer we have to worry about. It’s the people that are supposed to care about our health and well-being.

How is Vermont Preventing Prescription Opioid Misuse?

While the following list is seemingly vague, we get an idea of what programs and prevention tactics are being employed and we’ll take a close look at a couple of the programs and the elements that make them successful. Vermont reportedly has the following prevention and treatment programs in place:

  • Mandatory Prescriber Education
  • Opioid Prescribing Guidelines
  • Eliminating Pill Mills (VT doesn’t have them but also doesn’t have legislation to eliminate/prevent them)
  • Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs
  • Increased Access to Naloxone
  • Availability of Opioid Use Disorder Treatment

Particular to mandatory prescriber education and opioid prescribing guidelines, at first glance, it could seem like just more charting in an attempt to decrease liability with a smoke screen of caring for the patient. However, it seems the amount of charting that needs to occur cannot be fudged or faked as there are too many stipulations in place that call upon the doctor to be, well, a responsible doctor! For example, when prescribing an opioid painkiller the prescriber must evaluate the benefits and risks, including risk of misuse. Additionally, the provider will need to produce a diagnosis that supports prescription opioids and consider and document the possibility of a non-opioid alternative as well as a non-pharmacological treatment.

These doctor and patient education attempts will help prevent the patients from confusing the drowsy eye warning on the bottle as a “wink, wink” suggestion, much like Lucille Bluth, of the cult television show, Arrested Development.

Beyond the Initiation Point

If you’re looking for a hole in Vermont’s approach, you must read on to determine if you feel it’s a credible approach. What’s been described in the preceding section is a small part of the process, the opioid initiation stage. How should we expect doctors, especially ones that see dozens of people on weekly basis, monitor opioid use after the initial prescription?

For general practitioners that aren’t seeing improvement in their patient’s condition they must be comfortable with a referral to a pain management specialist and/or a substance abuse specialist. Mainly, don’t be so damn arrogant! Some of the risk indicators are listed below:

  • Treatment goals are not met despite escalating doses.
  • The patient’s history and/or a screening indicate high risk for misuse, abuse, diversion, addiction, or overdose.
  • The prescriber knows or suspects based upon reasonable grounds that the patient has engaged in misuse of opioids or other substances.
  • The patient obtains prescriptions from multiple prescribers and/or multiple pharmacies.
  • The patient has been prescribed multiple controlled substances

Relating back to the more charting phenomenon, it seems that a common theme within Vermont’s model is documenting their treatment of the patient. Vermont’s laws indicate that the patient must be seen within 365 days of the initial prescription, otherwise the provider will be held accountable for being in violation of a state law. The annual review of a patient’s prescription mirrors the initiation stage and what’s important about the annual requirement is that patients that are misusing or are addicted have to come back and evaluate their use themselves. That way the provider and patient are being held accountable. The annual reevaluation period has the following salient elements:

  • Reevaluation of effectiveness and safety of the pain management plan and the patient’s adherence to the treatment regimen.
  • Potential for non-opioid/non-pharmacological treatments.
  • Functional status examination of the patient.
  • Review of the Controlled Substance Treatment Agreement and Informed Consent, and any revisions to the conditions.
  • Assessment of co-morbid conditions.
  • Related actions that may prompt adjustments to treatment, including aberrant behavior, early refills, or other factors reasonably suggesting risks associated with misuse, abuse, diversion, addiction, or overdose.

Of the aforementioned elements, especially within the one year mark, what sticks out the most the requirement to assess for comorbidity. Yes, the patient may have come with back pain due to recent surgery however, he or she may have developed an addiction over time, especially due to the vulnerability a physical ailment can create. Those suffering from an injury or that are in recovery cannot always participate in regular activities, may be bed ridden at times and feel alienated from their social group. All of those elements could result in depressive symptoms, which put someone at much higher risk to misuse or abuse drugs.

As indicated earlier, addiction is a disease and must be recognized and treated as such. While Vermont is seeing their most significant decrease in prescription opioid misuse in the 18 to 25 age range, the Substance Use and Mental Health Services Administration found that the rates for mental illness and substance use disorders were the highest (35.1%) for people in the same age range.

Conclusion

While the opioid epidemic is alive and well, it’s a welcome sight to see Vermont attempting to increase their treatment capacity to deter the effects to their residents. Much like the tobacco industry’s settlement with 46 states in 1998, the wave of lawsuits may force the pharmaceutical companies to take more responsibility for ignoring or downplaying the addictive nature of opioids. In the tobacco settlement the tobacco industry agreed to make ongoing payments to the 46 states involved to fund anti-smoking campaigns and public health programs. With the current climate of healthcare and the increasing cost, a similar settlement could be applied to the opioid epidemic. In the meantime, other states should be following in the footsteps of Vermont because, just like tobacco, much of the damage is already done. The patients are hooked. What makes this even worse is that many of those hooked started with trying to get help. We’ve learned quite a bit since the time period of doctors recommending smoking. Let’s not be so naive again.

World’s Most Dangerous Drug? Carfentanil makes its case

You’ve heard of Morphine. It’s an opioid painkiller administered by health professionals worldwide every day. If you’ve ever been hurt badly enough to be hospitalized, there’s a good chance you were given Morphine for the pain. Morphine is actually listed as one of the two most important opioid painkillers by the World Health Organization, making it a crucial part of a basic healthcare system.

Morphine and other opioid painkillers are involved in 40% of all drug overdoses, and Morphine itself is essentially heroin, just less refined.

You may not have heard of Fentanyl. It’s an opioid painkiller as well, used mainly for anesthesia and pain management, and it’s up to 100 times stronger than Morphine. You may have been given Fentanyl prior to a surgery, and it is often used by veterinarians on smaller animals requiring surgery. Fentanyl has also helped produce drugs to alleviate cancer pain. When used properly, it is an effective medicine.

Fentanyl patches have been killing children under 2 for over fifteen years, and starting around 2006 there has been a steady rise in the amount of deaths caused by Fentanyl.
You likely haven’t heard of Carfentanil, unless you are in the veterinary field and deal with large mammals. Carfentanil is extremely close in chemical makeup to and can be derived from Fentanyl. Similar to Morphine and Fentanyl, it too is an opioid painkiller, primarily marketed as Wildnil, for use as an anesthetic for large animals such as elephants. It’s 100 times stronger than Fentanyl, and is therefore 10,000 times stronger than Morphine, making it “one of the most potent known and the most potent commercially used opioids,” according to the US National Library of Medicine. Carfentanil is never administered to human beings.

Due to its limited medical use, the US government only allows an annual production quota of 19 grams. Ingestion of this powerful drug can cause near-automatic respiratory failure, as the entire nervous system slows down to a point where death is imminent.

Carfentanil has lately been being mixed into heroin, and bad batches have killed tens of thousands of people. An amount the size of a poppy seed can be lethal.carfentanil

A New Epidemic

Heroin use in America is an overwhelming epidemic. It’s estimated that 900,000 Americans use heroin, and it’s a fact that heroin abuse rates have skyrocketed in the past decade. 2014 set a new record for heroin overdose deaths at 10,574. Every day in the news there are sad stories of heroin running rampant and killing young people.

Carfentanil plays a major role in this current heroin-caused death spree.

Drug dealers are lacing heroin with Carfentanil all across the country and even in Canada. Those who use the laced heroin are overdosing in huge numbers. In fact, no compiled data exists yet for how many people have died in total from Carfentanil-laced heroin, likely because of how quickly this is all happening. In order to see the scope of the problem, individual episodes must be examined.

Carfentanil on the Rise

July of this year marked the essential start of the Carfentanil epidemic. Since then, strings of fatal overdoses have been reported all over North America, and continue to be reported this month. These deaths are predominantly occurring from Carfentanil-laced heroin, but the deadly effects of Carfentanil made international headlines in 2002.

Movsar Barayev, a Chechen warlord, held 912 people hostage at the Dubrovska Theater in Moscow, Russia. After a three day holdout, Russian police pumped what was called a sleeping gas into the building, effectively killing Barayev and his 40-person team, but also killing 130 of the hostages. Much controversy surrounded the subsequent investigation. It was discovered, however, that the gas was made mainly of Carfentanil. It was literally used as a chemical weapon. (This implication is further investigated below).

Now, in America, fourteen years later, Carfentanil is again making headlines.

Ohio, USA

In early July, Ohio police seized large amounts of heroin which was laced with Carfentanil. Apparently some had gotten distributed already. By the end of the month, the city of Akron alone saw 141 Carfentanil-laced heroin overdoses, ten percent of them fatal. Columbus saw ten fatal overdoses(apr link) from the concoction in just a nine-hour period. Last month, over 200 Cincinnati residents died this way in just two weeks’ time.

The state has recently been strengthening its police force and creating anti-heroin coalitions. Hamilton County coroner Dr. Sammarco told the New York Times, “We’d never seen it before. I’m really worried about this.” Another quote that drives the point home of just how bad it is in Ohio comes from Akron Police Chief Jim Nice: “Most of the deaths from heroin overdoses are coming from too much Fentanyl being cut into that.” The Fentanyl he speaks of is oftentimes Carfentanil, which remember is the 100x stronger version.

Pennsylvania, USA

In early August, a report from officials in Philadelphia said users of Carfentanil-laced heroin are “dropping like flies.” John Libonati, coroner for Mercer County, is reportedly “desperate to get that information out to the public.” Up until August, there had been 10 Carfentanil-related deaths in the county. During the first week of August there were four more. Regardless, the number of accidental overdose deaths in the county is down from last year.

Statistics can be misleading, however, and this string of fatal overdoses in a highly populated area of Pennsylvania serves as proof. Libonati credits the drop in accidental overdose deaths to “quick emergency responses, accurate diagnosing and the availability of Naloxone, and not a reduction in drug abuse.” While it is good news that this response is happening, abuse is still rampant. Libonati went on to say, “The number of calls that we and other ambulance services are getting is skyrocketing… The number of deaths may be down but usage is not. Literally every part of Mercer County is affected.”

Maryland, USA

In September, the Maryland Poison Center published an update concerning Carfentanil overdoses, explaining and warning people how the drug has been laced into heroin recently. The publication also reads: “Safety protocols are being developed by agencies in many Maryland jurisdictions and throughout the U.S. to minimize the risk of exposure. Many agencies are recommending that field-testing of suspected heroin be suspended.”

This means Carfentanil is so dangerous that even testing heroin laced with it could be fatal for the testers. Imagine what this drug does inside the body…

Alberta, Canada

Earlier this month, one Edmonton man and one Calgary man each died from Carfentanil-laced heroin overdoses. Alberta’s chief medical officer of health, Dr. Karen Grimsrud, issued a warning afterward: “Albertans need to know that the drug Carfentanil has made its way into our province and that it is an extremely dangerous and deadly opioid. The smallest trace of Carfentanil can be lethal and Albertans should be aware of the life-threatening dangers in using this drug.”

Over 150 Albertans have died from Fentanyl-laced heroin this year, but evidence suggests that Carfentanil may be to blame in some cases but is untraceable. Due to the extremely low amount required for a fatal overdose, Carfentanil detection requires highly-sensitive equipment only recently even being made. Alberta’s chief medical examiner, Dr. Elizabeth Brooks-Lim: “There are very few labs in North America capable of measuring Carfentanil in human blood.”

Michigan, USA

Just days ago, Wayne County chief medical examiner Carl Schmidt reported 19 fatal overdoses from Carfentanil-laced heroin. Also, the Michigan Regional Poison Control Center has reported a rise in severe opioid-related toxicity levels among patients.

Analysis of heroin samples from surrounding counties is currently underway. Only time will tell if Carfentanil has found its way into other areas of Michigan, but already there have been suspected instances in Port Huron and New Haven. Chairwoman of Governor Snyder’s commission on opiate prevention, and president of Families Against Narcotics, Judge Linda B. Davis, told USA Today, “This is really scary. It makes it more deadly than heroin already is. It is devastating communities.”

Oregon, USA

In the past two months, two Oregon residents have overdosed from Carfentanil-laced heroin. Miraculously, both people survived. Dr. Zane Horowitz, medical director of Oregon Poison Center, knows this is not usually the case. “It doesn’t take much. The first time most people use it is the last time they use it,” said the doctor to local news network NWCN.

Vancouver, Canada

A huge success for Canadian border officials in early August was also a sign of how bad the Carfentanil epidemic has gotten in North America. In Vancouver, an entire kilogram of the stuff was intercepted in the mail by the Canadian Border Services Agency. It was discovered in a package addressed to 24-year-old Calgary native Joshua Wrenn. He faces a charge of importation of a controlled substance.

The single kilogram contained enough Carfentanil to kill 50 million people, more than the number of people in all of Canada. Where the Carfentanil came from brings us to an entirely different continent: Asia.

China Sells Carfentanil, and it’s a Chemical Weapon

CBS recently reported on Chinese businesses that are willing to sell Carfentanil “openly online, for worldwide export, no questions asked,” according to the Associated Press, who investigated these Chinese businesses. Twelve different Chinese vendors were discovered to offer Carfentanil by the kilogram via their websites. China does not list Carfentanil as a controlled substance, and as a nation leads the world in synthetic drug sales. The US has pressed China to outlaw the substance. Nothing has happened yet.

The Freedom of Information Act has made it public knowledge that since its creation in 1974, the US, the UK, Russia, Israel, China, India, and the Czech Republic have all researched Carfentanil as a possible chemical weapon. It has since been banned entirely from warfare according to the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Former assistant secretary of defense for nuclear, chemical and biological defense programs Andrew Weber said, “It’s a weapon. Companies shouldn’t be just sending it to anybody.” However, if you live in the US, Canada, the UK, France, Germany, Australia or Belgium, one kilogram of death powder goes for $2,750. An email sent in September from a representative of China-based Jilin Tely Import and Export Co. to Associated Press amidst their investigation read, “We can supply Carfentanil… for sure. And it’s one of our hot sales product,” broken English and all.

Weber, in response to the ease with which the Associated Press found in ordering Carfentanil from China, said, “Countries that we are concerned about were interested in using it for offensive purposes. We are also concerned that groups like ISIS could order it commercially.” This has some terrifying implications.

China’s Stance

Fentanyl is a controlled substance in China, along with 18 other related chemical compounds. However, Carfentanil remains uncontrolled. This is rather unfortunate considering the effect China controlling a substance has on the United States.

For example, last October, China added Acetylfentanyl, a weaker version of the very-strong Fentanyl, to its controlled substance list. Six months later, Acetylfentanyl overdoses in the US were down by 60%.

The problem lies in the “freewheeling chemicals industry” of China, as CBS calls it. Here’s what happens. Vendors that produce these chemicals lie on their customs forms. This enables them to guarantee delivery of Carfentanil to countries where it is illegal. These vendors even go so far as to offer advice to buyers on how to sneak the packages past law enforcement and into their homes.

Here’s what Xu Liqun had to say, president of Hangzhou Reward Technology, a company that offers Carfentanil on its website: ““The government should impose very serious limits, but in reality in China it’s so difficult to control because if I produce 1 or 2 kilograms, how will anyone know? They cannot control you, so many products, so many labs.”

In Conclusion

This is some scary stuff. The drug used to immobilize elephants, the largest land mammals on Earth, is being put into heroin all over North America, and most of it is coming from Chinese websites that allow free sale of the stuff, even offering advice on how to sneak it past the cops and the post office.

The heroin it’s being put into is killing Americans by the tens of thousands, in all corners of the country. The worst part of all is how undetectable Carfentanil is; heroin addicts are unsuspectingly buying their own deaths. The heroin epidemic is becoming a Carfentanil epidemic, and it needs to stop.

Heroin Overdose: A Picture of Abuse

I can describe a cactus. I can tell you about its thick, bulbous leaves, and how they’re covered in spines. I can explain how the cactus has dry, tannish spots on its leaves, and how tall the cactus is. I can literally read the dictionary definition of ‘cactus’ to you, but if you have never seen a cactus, all of my words are useless. Take a look at one, though, and you know exactly what a cactus looks like, no words required.

Sometimes a picture says it all.

Such is the case with this couple from Ohio. Both are passed out from heroin use, inside a vehicle, with a small child in the rear seat. The story makes you cringe, but it’s a story that needs to be heard.

heroin overdose ohio

What Happened?

Last Wednesday in East Liverpool, Ohio, James Acord was pulled over by Officer Kevin Thompson. Acord was driving erratically and weaving in and out of traffic. He told Officer Thompson he was bringing his girlfriend, Rhonda Pasek, to a nearby hospital. She was passed out in the passenger seat. An affidavit from the arrest says Acord’s head was “bobbing back and forth,” and that “his speech was almost unintelligible.” Immediately after speaking to the officer, Acord fell unconscious himself. That was when Officer Thompson noticed a little boy in back of the car.

Rhonda Pasek’s 4-year-old son was in the back seat, witnessing his mother and her boyfriend overdose on heroin before his very eyes.

Officer Thompson noticed Pasek turning blue and called emergency medical technicians to the scene. The technicians administered Narcan, a powerful anti-overdose drug, to Pasek, possibly saving her life.

Acord pled guilty to the charges of operating a vehicle while impaired as well as endangering the welfare of a child. He was sentenced to one year in jail, had his driver’s license revoked for three years, and was fined $475. Pasek pled non-guilty to the charges of endangering the welfare of a child, disorderly conduct, and public intoxication, and has a bond set for $150,000.

Setting an Example

The pictures of them unconscious in the vehicle were taken by the arresting officer. Less than a week after the incident, the city of East Liverpool decided to publish the pictures on the city Facebook page. Their reason for doing so, (from the page):

We feel it necessary to show the other side of this horrible drug. We feel we need to be a voice for the children caught up in this horrible mess. This child can’t speak for himself but we are hopeful his story can convince another user to think twice about injecting this poison while having a child in their custody.

The pictures are graphic, but they reveal so much about the heroin epidemic that has swept our country. Heroin addiction is so awful that couples with children are passing out behind the wheel. These two were made examples by a state that knows firsthand how terrible the heroin epidemic can be.

Ohio has a Heroin Problem

“We are well aware that some may be offended by these images and for that we are truly sorry, but it is time that the non drug using public sees what we are now dealing with on a daily basis.” This was published along with the pictures on the East Liverpool Facebook page. The city speaks from experience.

Heroin overdoses rose by over 70% in Ohio from 2012 to 2013. The following year, they rose by 300%. Ohio had the second most drug overdose deaths of all fifty states in 2014. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) called Ohio’s heroin problem “an emerging threat to public health and safety.” As of this year, 18 Ohio residents die per week of heroin. 92% of those imprisoned in Ohio have a history of drug addiction. The Ohio State Bar Association (OSBA) website sums it up well: “Heroin addiction is an epidemic in Ohio, affecting countless individuals and families.”

The OSBA site also deals with some legislation recently passed in Ohio to combat the problem. The Attorney General’s Office has established a Heroin Unit for prosecution support and extending education. A plethora of laws have been passed recently to further criminalize heroin dealers. The site says the state “is mounting a vigorous fight against heroin.” Casey’s Law was passed in 2012, strengthening the rehabilitation process for heroin addicts by allowing for court-ordered involuntary drug treatment by request. The Ohio Automated Rx Reporting System requires those receiving opioid-based prescriptions to undergo a patient review process.

Countless more legislation is being tossed at the heroin epidemic in Ohio. Unfortunately, Ohio is not alone in this fight. The heroin epidemic is national, not contained within any state’s borders. Although Ohio has it bad, America has it bad, and the numbers prove it.

America has a Heroin Problem

Current estimates show there to be about 900,000 heroin users in America, with 586,000 of them addicted. Approximately 10,000 people die from heroin overdoses a year. To put that in perspective, by the time you finish watching a two-hour movie, three people will have fatally overdosed on heroin. The people overdosing are not suicidal maniacs running around with multiple needles in their arms, either. The CDC determined 81% of drug overdose deaths to be unintentional. Regardless of what the picture on the East Liverpool website may look like, and regardless of what you may have in your mind as an image of a heroin addict, these are real people, most of them young, and they need help. The average of an American heroin addict is 23.

We part with more words posted alongside the picture of James Acord and Rhonda Pasek on the East Liverpool Facebook page: “The poison known as heroin has taken a strong grip on many communities not just ours, the difference is we are willing to fight this problem until it’s gone and if that means we offend a few people along the way we are prepared to deal with that.”