Are Heroin Overdoses Painful?

Are heroin overdoses painful? You may be asking yourself this question if a loved one is dealing with an addiction to opioids. You may also wonder about what an overdose is like if you use heroin yourself. Naturally, no one wants to think about someone they care about going through a painful and possibly deadly experience. Yet, many people are exposed to the risk of having a heroin overdose every day.

Heroin use has been on the rise in recent years. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 494,000 people over the age of 12 reported using heroin in 2017. The use of heroin has also increased among people in demographics that used to be considered at a lower risk, such as women and people who fall within higher income brackets. Essentially, the growing epidemic of opioid use is something that could impact any household in the United States

For families of someone with an addiction to heroin, the possibility of an overdose is never far from their minds. You may also deal with the constant fear of not being able to save someone’s life if they have an overdose while you are there with them. Sadly, a person is at risk of overdosing every time they use heroin due to the inability to know for sure what a street drug may do to the body.

The simple answer to the question about whether heroin overdoses are painful is probably “no” due to the way that heroin affects pain receptors in the brain. However, there is much more than you need to know about overdoses than just how painful they are to the person going through them. Overdoses can be deadly, which means that you need to be able to recognize when one is happening so that you can immediately get the person help.

How Do People Use Heroin?

Heroin use is often associated with injections. However, someone that you know could also be using heroin through other methods that do not leave track marks on their skin. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, heroin is primarily sold in two different forms that may resemble a brown or white powder or a black, tarry substance.

Depending on the type of heroin that a person has, they may snort it, smoke it or turn it into an injectable liquid. Keep in mind that heroin can sometimes look similar to other types of drugs, but you should always tell emergency responders if you believe that someone used heroin before they began to show signs of an overdose.

What Effect Does Heroin Have on the Body?

When you are wondering if heroin overdoses are painful, understanding how the drug works in the body can help you understand why they are usually painless. Heroin binds to special opioid receptors in the brain. These are the same types of receptors that prescription painkillers bind to, making a person’s brain no longer respond to painful stimuli with the usual levels of discomfort.

Heroin also stimulates a rush of dopamine through a person’s body. Dopamine is an endorphin that generates a feeling of euphoria. Due to these physiological reactions, someone who is having an overdose will likely be unable to feel pain. In fact, they may briefly feel an intense sense of euphoria shortly before their body becomes unable to deal with the drug in their system.

How Does an Overdose Happen?

Having the answer to your concerns about are heroin overdoses painful is reassuring if you have lost someone to their use of the drug. Yet, it is also important to understand how an overdose happens so that you can help anyone who is currently struggling with an addiction.

At the same time that heroin is attaching to the opioid receptors in the brain, it also affects the central nervous system and respiratory system. While a person is under the influence of the drug, their breathing tends to slow down. In some cases, it can slow down to the point that their body simply stops breathing.

A similar situation also occurs with the heart. Heroin can cause arrhythmia, which is an irregular heartbeat. When the heart beats irregularly, the brain does not receive enough blood flow to keep it active. A lack of blood flow can also impact other organs that help keep a person alive, and severe arrhythmias can place so much stress on the heart that it stops beating completely. When a person overdoses, they are at risk of respiratory or cardiac arrest that could lead to death.

Can Other Opioids Lead to an Overdose?

One of the reasons why heroin use is on the rise is linked to the addictive nature of other opioids. Opioid-based prescription painkillers, such as codeine, have addictive qualities that can cause a person to experience physical and psychological withdrawals if they try to stop using them without the appropriate professional help.

Once a physician stops prescribing these drugs to a patient, that person may turn to heroin as a way to address their dependency on opioids. Heroin tends to be a cheaper and easier alternative to prescription drugs. For this reason, the use of other legal opioids could cause a person to eventually begin to use heroin and become at risk of having an overdose.

It must also be noted that those same opioid painkillers can also cause an overdose on their own. This typically happens if a person begins to use the drugs differently than how they were prescribed. For instance, taking an extra dose of prescription pain pills or mixing them with alcohol could lead to an overdose. Overdoses caused by other opioids tend to have the same effects as those stimulated by heroin.

What Are the Signs of a Heroin Overdose?

Being able to recognize the signs of a heroin overdose makes it more likely that you can get someone the help that they need before they experience long-term consequences. With a typical overdose, you will notice that a person’s breathing is slowed or depressed. They may also have a weak pulse that indicates that blood is not circulating through their body properly.

A person who is still conscious may be disoriented and will keep trying to go to sleep. If their eyes are open, then you may detect signs of an overdose in their eyes, such as pinpoint pupils. If this is the case, then you need to do everything you can to keep them awake until they receive treatment to stop the overdose. Over time, a person will continue to lose their ability to maintain consciousness.

It is also common to find someone already unconscious. When this happens, call for emergency services immediately and begin to apply CPR and first aid. Make sure to tell the emergency responders about the person’s history with heroin so that they can treat the suspected overdose properly.

Why Do Some People Overdose and Others Don’t?

Some people use heroin for many years without overdosing. Others might experience an overdose from a single use. Any type of drug can have unpredictable effects, but there are some risk factors that increase a person’s chances of having an overdose.

For instance, a person who uses heroin in large amounts may take more than their body can handle. Using heroin from unsafe sources can also lead to overdose. Many drug dealers cut heroin with other substances or claim that something is heroin when it is not. In these instances, a person may have a reaction to another chemical that is mixed with the heroin.

There is also an increased risk of having an overdose among people who have stopped using the drug and then experience a relapse. After a relapse, a person may try to use the same amount of heroin that they used before they got treatment. After they complete rehab, their body’s tolerance lowers. Due to the serious risk of overdoses among people who relapse, it is always best to seek professional help at the first sign that you or someone else might be about to use heroin again.

What Can Someone Do to Save a Person Who Is Overdosing?

Family and friends of a drug user are often in a position to serve as a first responder during an overdose. The U.S. Surgeon General has issued recommendations that people who are involved with heroin in any way should talk to their physician about having naloxone on hand at home.

Naloxone is a medication that can stop the effects of heroin immediately and reverse an overdose. The medication can be delivered through an injection or nasal spray, and a person can even administer it to themselves if they realize they are overdosing before they lose consciousness or the ability to react to their symptoms.

If you see someone with the signs of an overdose, call for help immediately. Then, administer naloxone if you have it available. You will also need to check the person’s breathing and administer rescue breaths as needed until help arrives. Keep in mind that a person still needs emergency medical treatment even when the use of naloxone stops the overdose.

Sometimes, the body will still continue to struggle with the effects of heroin, and the person may go back into their overdose within a short period of time. They may also feel extremely sick following the administration of naloxone.

Will an Overdose Lead to Permanent Damage?

The severity of the damage a person is left with after an overdose ranges from no lingering effects at all to severe problems such as brain damage. Typically, long-term effects from an overdose are due to a person not getting enough oxygen to their brain for a prolonged period of time. According to the Brain Injury Association of America, approximately 50 percent of people receiving treatment for substance use disorders have some degree of trauma to their brain. For this reason, prompt help is vital to protect a person from the worst effects of their addiction.

Permanent damage can also occur if a person has an overdose in an unsafe place or experiences a secondary injury during the event. For instance, a person who is sitting up or standing when the overdose occurs could fall down and get hurt. People using heroin may also become disoriented and do things that place their health at risks, such as losing consciousness outside where they are exposed to foul weather and criminal activity.

Are Heroin Withdrawals Painful or Dangerous?

The best way to avoid finding out if heroin overdoses are painful is to stop using the drug. However, this is not so easy due to the addictive nature of heroin. It is common for people to return to using the drug just to avoid the withdrawal symptoms that can last for several months. These withdrawal symptoms can include physical sensations such as nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. A person may also experience depression, anxiety, and other psychological symptoms.

While these symptoms are uncomfortable, they are not life-threatening like an overdose is. In fact, there are many things that you can do to find relief from these symptoms so that you or your loved one is less likely to relapse.

Is It Possible to Quit Using Heroin?

The only sure way to avoid having a heroin overdose is to stop using the drug. Yet, relapses are common. The good news is that it is possible to quit using heroin. However, it does take work and a strong support network.

When a person quits using heroin, they may need therapeutic services that help them get off the drug and learn how to cope with the underlying reasons for why they started using it in the first place. Heroin addiction recovery typically involves receiving intensive counseling and therapeutic services for several weeks or months. This is then followed by aftercare, such as attending group meetings or seeing an individual counselor.

While it is reassuring to know that heroin overdoses do not cause immediate pain, it is important to note that losing someone you love to this drug is extremely painful. Fortunately, it is possible to help someone who is having an overdose when you are prepared and can recognize the symptoms. You can also help your loved one avoid having an overdose completely by talking to them about the need for treatment to overcome their habit of using the drug.

What is Naloxone

What Is Naloxone?

Due to the “opioid epidemic” in the United States, naloxone is increasingly mentioned on evening news broadcasts and in mainstream media. The question “What is naloxone?” is now being asked more and more often.

Essentially, naloxone is a potentially life-saving medication that can reverse an opioid overdose. In the United States, it is available in most states without a prescription, and it can be given as an injection or as a nasal spray.

How Does This Medication Work?

After administration, naloxone binds to receptors in the brain that also receive opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, opium, heroin, and methadone. After binding to these receptors, naloxone blocks the effects of any opioids that may be in the body for between 30 to 90 minutes. This is normally sufficient time to reverse respiratory depression (very slow breathing), a frequent and potentially fatal complication that may occur with an overdose. This medicine normally starts working within two to three minutes after it is administered.

Importantly, this drug will only reverse the effects of opioids. It has no effect on other medicines that may be in the body. For example, it can’t reverse the effects of an overdose of alcohol, sedatives, stimulants, or benzodiazepines. However, since the majority of overdose cases involve a mixture of opioids and other drugs, using naloxone can help a patient who has overdosed begin breathing again. If a patient has no opioids in his or her body at the time of administration, naloxone will have no impact and cause no side effects.

What Conditions Does This Medicine Treat?

In addition to its primary use as emergency medication for overdoses, this medicine is also administered to confirm a diagnosis of an acute overdose of opioids. For patients who are in septic shock, this medicine can help stabilize and maintain blood pressure. Patients who are dealing with a substance use issue that involves buprenorphine, an opioid, may be offered a drug that contains both buprenorphine and naloxone as part of their treatment. The combination of these two medications works to decrease the patient’s dependency on buprenorphine.

How Effective Is This Medicine?

A recent study in Massachusetts showed that this medicine is more than 93 percent effective in reviving patients who have overdosed. The research was based on more than 12,000 doses administered over a two-and-a-half-year period.

Who Should Not Use Naloxone?

Studies have not been done on the safety of naloxone for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Patients who have cardiovascular disease should mention this to their doctor, if possible, before receiving this medicine.

In an emergency situation, however, it may not be possible to tell doctors about pre-existing health conditions, and the benefits of this potentially life-saving treatment far outweigh any risks. This medicine has safely been used in emergency settings for patients with cardiovascular concerns and for patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Naloxone can be used for neonates, children, and adults.

What Are the Potential Side Effects of This Medication?

Since this medicine is designed to quickly reverse the effects of opioids during a medical emergency, it typically triggers immediate symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Within two to three minutes of receiving naloxone, patients may start experiencing nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. They may also have a fever and begin shaking or sweating. Some patients may exhibit sudden tremors or shiver, and the patient’s heart rate and blood pressure will likely increase. The patient may feel as though his or her heart is pounding, and he or she may also show signs of nervousness, agitation, or restlessness.

In addition, patients may develop widespread body aches, and they may also begin yawning. Some patients feel very weak after receiving this medication, and others may have a runny nose. If this medicine is administered to an infant under 4 weeks of age, the baby may exhibit stiffness and overactive reflexes. He or she may cry more than usual, and seizures have also been reported.

This medication does not produce a high, and it is not habit-forming. Patients will not build up a tolerance to this medication, and it can be administered safely and successfully to patients who have had it previously for a past overdose.

What Delivery Routes Are Used for This Medication?

This medicine can be given as a subcutaneous injection under the skin. Most commonly, it is given as an intramuscular injection in the outer thigh, and it may also be given intravenously (through a vein).

An auto-injector is available in the United States and other countries. This device is a pre-filled syringe with a needle size that is suitable for intramuscular injections. Several nasal spray options are available as well.

Who Can Administer This Medication?

This medicine can be administered by doctors, nurses, and emergency medical personnel. To help combat the opioid epidemic, many police departments routinely carry it, and they are also authorized to administer it. Since it is normally available without a prescription, caregivers, friends, and family of those struggling with a substance use issue are encouraged to keep it with them, and medical staff can instruct them in how to administer it safely.

What Should I Do Before Administering This Medicine?

Before using this medicine on a patient, friend, or loved one, check for signs of an overdose. Normally, patients who have overdosed will be unconscious, so try calling the person’s name and rubbing his or her chest with your knuckles to see if the patient will respond. If he or she doesn’t respond, listen to his or her breathing. If it is very slow or shallow, the patient could have overdosed. The patient may also show signs of gasping for air, and a snoring sound may also be present.

Next, continue checking the patient for signs of overdose by listening to his or her heartbeat or checking his or her pulse. You can feel the patient’s pulse by placing two fingers on the inside of his or her wrist or on the side of his or her neck. If a stethoscope is not available, place your ear on the patient’s chest to evaluate his or her heart rate. Patients who have overdosed will have a very slow heartbeat, often less than 50 or 60 beats per minute. Although this can only be checked with proper equipment, the patient’s blood pressure will also be very low.

Continue by checking the patient’s eyes and skin. Most overdoses constrict the pupils, and the patient’s skin may turn blue or be very pale. If any or all of these overdose signs are present, call for emergency medical care, and tell the dispatcher that the patient is unresponsive and is not breathing.

Finally, help the patient by giving rescue breaths. To do this, check that there is nothing inside the person’s mouth that may be blocking his or her breathing. If there is, remove it. Next, tilt the patient’s head back, and pinch both of his or her nostrils closed. Slowly breathe into the person’s mouth two times, and look to see if the chest rises. Give one of these rescue breaths every five seconds.

If the patient does not respond or start breathing on his or her own after 30 seconds of rescue breaths, administer naloxone. Then, continue giving rescue breaths once every five seconds. If the patient remains unresponsive three minutes after naloxone has been given, a second dose of the medication should be administered. Rescue breaths should be continued until emergency medical personnel arrive.

How Is This Medicine Administered?

Proper administration of this medicine varies depending on the route and device used. If using the nasal spray version of this medication, remove any cap that may be covering the nozzle. Hold the bottle by placing your thumb on the bottom of the plunger, and place two fingers on either side of the nozzle itself. Next, insert the nozzle into the patient’s nostril, advancing until the fingers you’ve placed on either side of the nozzle are touching the bottom part of the patient’s nose. Next, press up on the plunger with your thumb until it stops; this will administer the entire dose to the patient.

There are several different versions of the nasal spray available for this medication. Some of these look more like a syringe than a bottle, and they may require that you administer half of the spray in each of the patient’s nostrils. The directions on the package will tell you whether to administer into both nostrils and what the dose should be.

If using the auto-injector device to administer this medicine, remove the device from its outer case. When ready to use, remove the red safety guard. This will expose a black base that contains the needle; be careful not to touch the base. Next, place the black part of the device on the patient’s outer thigh. If necessary, you can place it over any clothing that the patient might be wearing; the device will still work.

Press the auto-injection device into the patient’s outer thigh for at least five seconds. This will release the needle and administer the dose. If done correctly, you’ll hear a click when the needle releases, and this will be followed by a hissing noise as the dose is administered. After the dose has been administered, you won’t be able to see the needle. Be careful to dispose of this device properly.

This medicine can be administered using an injection that is prepared at the time it is needed. This method is the hardest to administer, and it is most often used in health care settings.

To administer this type of injection, use a needle that is long enough to reach the patient’s muscle. Draw up 1cc of the drug into the syringe, and inject it into a large muscle. While the outer thigh is the most common place for administration, you can also give the injection into the patient’s shoulder or into the outer quadrant of the glute muscle.

What Should I Do After Administering Naloxone?

After naloxone has been administered, stay with the patient to monitor him or her until paramedics arrive. If the patient has regained consciousness, protect him or her from taking additional opioids; this could trigger another overdose that may require more doses of naloxone. Monitor the patient for signs of opioid withdrawal that may occur after giving this medication, and report these to paramedics. In particular, monitor the patient to make sure that he or she does not begin having chest pain or an irregular heartbeat.

After receiving this medication, some patients may experience seizures or hallucinations. It is also possible that the patient may go into cardiac arrest or lose consciousness again. Stay with the patient to keep him or her as safe as possible, and report any of these signs to the paramedics.

How Is This Medication Stored?

To make sure that this medicine will be effective when it is needed, proper storage is essential. Ideally, it should be stored in a dry, dark place that is between 40 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Exposure to sunlight may cause this medicine to lose its potency, so storing it in a cabinet is normally recommended. While this medicine may still be effective if it is expired or has been stored improperly, additional doses beyond the recommended dosage may be necessary to revive the patient.

How Can I Get This Medication for a Friend?

In 48 U.S. states, this medication can be obtained simply by asking the pharmacist to dispense it. Most pharmacies will have it available that same day. If it is not in stock, the pharmacist can order it for the next business day. The injectable form of this medicine is the cheapest, and the pharmacist can provide complete information about prices.

In states where a prescription is required for this medicine, patients or caregivers will need to ask a primary care physician to issue the prescription. In response to the opioid epidemic, many health officials are now urging everyone to carry a dose of this medicine with them. That way, bystanders will be able to help if they encounter an overdose in their community.

How to Prepare for Rehab

Going to rehab means you get professional help that makes it possible to finally regain control over your life. While there are many different types of treatments offered through rehab programs, one principle that applies to all of them is that remaining in the program is critical for your success.

The amount of time that you need to stay in rehab varies according to the different factors that affect your recovery. For instance, you may need to stay longer if you use drugs that require supervised detox or if you have had a relapse before. Having to leave the program too soon due to problems at home hinders your ability to achieve the best possible long-term recovery.

Your success in rehab is also affected by your ability to focus on correcting the underlying causes of your addiction and let go of everything else. This means that you do not want to be stressing out over whether your pet was fed or if a bill got paid.

Since life is naturally going to continue on no matter where you are, it helps to take some time to prepare for rehab. Now that you’ve made the decision to get your life back on track, just follow these steps to ensure that you can direct all of your attention to your addiction treatment program.

Notify Your Employer of Your Absence

People sometimes worry about telling their employer that they need time off to go to addiction treatment. While it is normal to feel nervous about revealing that you have a substance use disorder, you should also know that your job is protected in most instances.

According to the Family and Medical Leave Act, employers cannot take negative action against someone who requests time off for substance use treatment and fits the requirements to receive this type of leave. However, your employer could terminate you if you break their policies about using drugs or alcohol on the job, and this becomes more likely to happen if your addiction worsens.

Most employers would prefer that someone seeks addiction treatment before their behaviors lead to issues in the workplace that affect everyone’s safety. You will also feel better knowing that you still have a job to come back to when you go home from rehab. Always make sure to follow your company’s policies for requesting leave. While some employers are fine with verbal notice, you may still want to get your request in writing so that you have proof that you followed the right procedures for making sure everyone was notified about your need for time off.

Arrange for Someone to Care for Your Family

In addition to work, you may also have other responsibilities to make sure are covered. For instance, you may have young children whom you care for every day. You might be a caregiver to an elderly or ill family member. There may be pets in your home that need someone to check in on them regularly.

Reach out to people who will help out with your family obligations. For instance, the other parent or a grandparent may be willing to watch children while you attend rehab. You may have a neighbor who will feed your pet, or you may need a pet sitter to handle their daily needs. Professional caregivers are an option if you cannot find someone to take care of an aging loved one. Since your family is one of the biggest factors that influence your happiness in life, handling your obligations to each person and pet should be one of the first things that you do to prepare for rehab.

Manage Your Financial Responsibilities

Paying bills may not be on your list of things that you enjoy doing, but it feels good to know that they are all handled while you begin your recovery. Grab a calendar and check to see which bills will be due during the dates that you plan to be gone. Ideally, you should pay any bills that fall within a few days before you leave and after your return. This way, you won’t forget one during the transition periods.

Once you know which bills need to be handled, you can then pay them ahead of time. Alternatively, you can set up automatic payments to keep them covered while you are away. If possible, you may want to appoint someone you trust to handle any unexpected bills that arise. This is especially important if you plan to go to rehab for several weeks or more than a month.

A family member or roommate is often the best person to pay a bill that may show up while you are working through your treatment program. Just ask them if they will check your mail, and give them the information that they need to pay the bills or reach out to you if they find something that requires your attention.

Handle Any Legal Obligations That You Have

If you do not have any legal obligations, then you can go ahead and skip forward to the next step to prepare for rehab. However, it is fairly common to have legal issues when you deal with addiction for a period of time. For instance, you might be on probation for a DUI, or you may have a court date scheduled in the future for a possession charge.

In most cases, authorities within the legal system prefer for people to get help with their addiction. Therefore, you will likely find that everyone you encounter encourages you to go to rehab, but they may require you to follow specific protocols. For instance, you may need to notify the judge that you need to reschedule an upcoming court date due to your treatment. Alternatively, your parole officer may need to know where you are so that you do not get charged with not following the regulations regarding your release from jail.

Put Together Your Support Network

With all of the tough work out of the way, you can now begin to focus on some of the easier preparations that you need to make to go to rehab. While you are in treatment, you need to know that you have friends and family members who support your decision to get help. You will also need these people to support you when you return home. In some cases, these same people may attend family or group therapy with you to address issues that were caused by your addiction.

Reaching out for support can sometimes be challenging, especially if you have done things that harmed your relationship in the past. As you contact each person, let them know about the decision you’ve made. If necessary, you may apologize for your past actions. Then, let them know how they can provide you with support. For instance, you can ask them to spend time with you doing sober activities until the day you leave for rehab.

These next few days or weeks are a great time to begin finding out how good it feels to spend time with your loved ones sober. Watch some movies, go to the park and enjoy phone calls with your family. They’ll love being able to see that you are serious about getting sober, and you’ll enter your treatment program with a relaxed state of mind that increases your success.

Find Out What You Need to Bring

Every rehab program is different, but you can expect that a  facility will provide you with a list of items that are suggested for you to bring to treatment along with things that should be left at home. Before your admission date, ask about important items such as your medications.

Treatment programs tend to regulate which types of medications are allowed to be brought to the treatment center. Typically, non-addictive medications that are used to treat a known medical condition can be brought with you. However, you may need to do things such as get a note from your doctor that explains the importance of the prescription. You may also need to stock up on medications that you normally refill on a monthly basis.

Once you have the medications that you need, you can find out how to pack them. For instance, you may need to leave them in their original prescription bottle. You may also only be allowed to bring exactly as much medicine as you need for your stay.

In addition to medication, there are other things that you need to bring to rehab. For the most part, comfortable clothing that does not advertise drugs or alcohol is allowed. While you may want to lounge in sweat pants most of the time, be sure to bring other types of clothing that will make you feel good when you have visitor days or family therapy.

The amenities that are available at the drug treatment center can also guide your packing decisions. For example, you might want to take a swimsuit if the center has a swimming pool. Alternatively, some workout clothing will be perfect for recreational therapy such as yoga or playing basketball.

As a final note to the packing process, find out if it is okay before you bring electronics. While some rehabs are fine with laptops and cellphones, other programs prefer you to leave them at home so that you can focus on your recovery. If this is the case, you will still have opportunities to use a phone at the center to talk to your loved ones and handle any business that arises in your absence. Just keep in mind that it is best to limit your involvement in outside activities to only what must be done. The rest of your time in treatment should be spend learning strategies that help with your recovery.

Write Down Your Goals

You will likely create goals to track your success once you enter treatment. However, you have a unique opportunity to begin documenting your journey now. Consider starting a journal that you can use to remind yourself of your goals as well as your progress. Later, this tool will be an important resource that you can rely on to reduce cravings and overcome challenges that lead to relapse.

Practice Relaxation Exercises to Relieve Stress

The prospect of getting sober is exciting. However, all of these preparations can also be stressful. After all, you are about to go to a new place and spend time with people that you do not know well in the beginning. Be sure to carve out some time to implement relaxation strategies that relieve stress. For instance, you could try meditating in the evening before you go to sleep to let go of the day’s worries.

If you find yourself feeling stressed by your preparations, you can also use affirmations to remind you of why you are going to rehab. For example, you can tell yourself that your decision to seek help allows you to regain your health and heal your relationships.

Finish Your Final Arrangements

As your final step, you need to figure out how you will get to rehab. While some people drive themselves, you may prefer to leave your car at home. Make sure to arrange for transportation to and from the treatment program so that you can finalize your plans to start your journey toward sober living.

Taking the time to prepare for rehab allows you to enter your treatment program with full confidence that everything will be fine at home until you return. While it does take some effort to do things such as notify your employers and set up automatic payments for your bills, you’ll be glad you did when you can finally focus on helping yourself get the best start on a lifetime of sobriety.

What Is Methadone

This medication is used to treat opiate substance use disorder. It’s also used to treat severe chronic pain in patients who need 24/7 pain relief. This medicine is prescribed by a doctor and dispensed to patients at a medication-assisted clinic. The drug can only be dispensed at a SAMHSA-certified opioid treatment program.

This drug is used in medication-assisted recovery programs to wean patients off of other opiates such as heroin, fentanyl, and morphine. It’s also used to maintain those with an opiate addiction on a stable dose of medication.

History of Methadone

German scientists at I.G. Farbenindustrie AG were working in 1937 to develop an easy-to-produce synthetic opiate to supplement Germany’s diminished opium supply. In 1941, they developed a synthetic formulation. They called it Hoechst 10820 or Polamidon.

Polamidon was marketed in 1943 and used by the German army during World War II. After the war ended, the Allies confiscated all information about Hoechst 10820. A U.S. study later reported that although the drug was potentially addictive, it produced less sedation and respiratory depression than morphine. It also had the potential to be marketed as a commercial drug.

In 1947, the American Medical Association named this drug methadone. It was introduced in the U.S. that same year by Eli Lilly and Company as a painkiller named Dolophine. Although the drug is an effective analgesic and pain reliever, it’s primarily used to treat opioid addiction. Dolophine literally means “an end to pain.”

When Was This Drug First Used for Opioid Treatment?

This medication was developed by German physicians Gustav Ehrhart and Max Bockmühl between 1937 and 1939. In the United States, it was approved for use in 1947. Initially, it was used to treat chronic, extreme pain. More recently, it’s been used as a treatment for those addicted to heroin and other opioid painkillers.

This drug has been designated as an Essential Medicine by the World Health Organization. It’s considered an effective and safe medicine, and it comes in tablet, powder and liquid form.

In the 1950s, treatment for heroin addiction usually meant going cold turkey while in prison. Over the next few decades, maintenance treatment was introduced as a more effective and humane treatment for opiate addiction. Heroin addiction was beginning to be seen as a medical problem that required treatment rather than as a moral failing.

Those with a substance use disorder can substitute this medicine for heroin and other opiates that may be dangerous to get and expensive to purchase. You don’t have to buy street drugs or doctor-shop to get a steady supply of prescription painkillers.

Instead of the erratic dosing experienced by those who use street drugs, this medicine can be dispensed daily with no variation in the dose. Rather than producing a “high” like other opiates, this medication simply keeps the withdrawal symptoms at bay so that you can attend to other matters and get on with your life.

Treatment works best when paired with a comprehensive medication-assisted recovery program. These programs typically include social support, education, counseling, and group therapy. Attendance at support group meetings like Narcotics Anonymous may be required.

How Does This Program Work?

This medication changes the way the brain processes pain. It reduces opiate withdrawal symptoms while blocking the sensation of “getting high.” The drug is taken once a day, and the effects can last from four to 24 hours. The dose is determined by the prescribing physician based on the patient’s history.

The more opiates you’ve been using, the higher your dosage will be. The dose can be raised or lowered at any time depending on the needs of the patient and the judgment of the physician. After a patient has been in the program for a while and stabilized on a reasonable dose, he or she may be allowed to take doses home for daily ingestion between clinic visits.

How Long Does Treatment Last?

The majority of treatment professionals agree that the most effective treatment lasts for at least one year, but some patients take this medicine for longer. If a patient wants to try life methadone-free, he or she should gradually taper off under the supervision of a doctor to minimize withdrawal symptoms and to maximize the possibility of success.

What Are the Side Effects?

Most side effects of this medication are well-tolerated. However, there are some symptoms that shouldn’t be ignored. Call for emergency services if any of the following symptoms appear:

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Chest pain
  • Pounding or rapid heartbeat
  • Confusion
  • Hallucinations
  • Feeling dizzy or faint
  • Hives or rashes
  • Swelling of the tongue, lips, face or throat

Some individuals experience other adverse side effects of this medicine. The most common are listed below:

  • Intolerance to heat
  • Flushing
  • Constipation
  • Sweating and perspiration
  • Constricted pupils
  • Sedation
  • Dry mouth
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Itchiness
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Decreased libido
  • Impotence
  • Inability to achieve orgasm

What Are the Withdrawal Symptoms?

Withdrawal symptoms with this medication take longer to ease off than the withdrawal symptoms of other opiate drugs. However, these symptoms can be greatly reduced with a gradual detox. The most common withdrawal symptoms associated with this medication include the following:

  • Sensitivity to light
  • Tearing eyes
  • Dilated pupils
  • Runny nose
  • Dizziness
  • Yawning
  • Sneezing
  • Intolerance to cold
  • Sweating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hyperventilation
  • High blood pressure
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Hypersensitivity to pain
  • Restlessness, agitation, and nervousness
  • Tremors
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Sore joints or legs
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Possible relapse
  • Visual and auditory hallucinations
  • Chronic insomnia
  • Depression
  • Anxiety and panic attacks

Addiction to opiates is thought to cause tooth decay due to the common side effect of a dry mouth. This symptom is exacerbated by the fact that many of those with a substance use disorder neglect oral hygiene and regular dental exams. Curiously enough, methadone seems to have a beneficial effect on reproductive health.

U.S. FDA Black Box Warning

The following risks are outlined in the Food and Drug Administration’s black box warning included with this drug:

  • Opioid withdrawal symptoms can be present in children of pregnant women.
  • This drug can be addictive.
  • Accidental lethal overdose is possible.
  • This medicine can be risky when taken with alcohol or benzodiazepines.

What Are the Overdose Symptoms?

The symptoms below have been observed in people who have overdosed on this drug:

  • Pinpoint pupils
  • Sedation and unresponsiveness
  • Limp muscles
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Slow and shallow breathing
  • Cool, clammy and damp skin
  • Unconsciousness and coma

Although deaths related to this medication can occur, most result from mixing it with other drugs, particularly CNS depressants.

Opiate overdose can be treated with an opioid antagonist like naloxone or naltrexone. Administering an opiate antagonist is tricky. Too little will be ineffective, and too much could activate a sudden detox with severe withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone is the preferred treatment because it has a short half-life. If you administer too much and the patient goes into withdrawal, the effects will be short-lived.

Naloxone leaves the body quickly, so multiple dosing may be necessary to keep the patient out of an overdose. This is especially true with methadone. It stays in the body for a long time, and its effects can last for up to 24 hours. When the antagonist wears off, the person returns to a state of overdose and another dose must be given.

Does This Drug Produce Tolerance and Dependence?

The more of an opiate you ingest, the more your tolerance builds. Although tolerance to the pain-killing effects of this medication may build slowly, tolerance to the euphoric effect develops quickly. On the other hand, tolerance to sedation, constipation and respiratory depression may not develop at all.

Who Qualifies for Methadone Treatment Coverage?

Although brand-name formulations can be expensive, generic tablets are relatively cheap. Treatment at an outpatient clinic may be covered by private insurance or by Medicare or Medicaid. When prescribed for pain and dispensed at a pharmacy, the cost of this medicine is covered under Medicare Part D.

Part D Medicare does not, however, cover this medication when it’s dispensed in a clinic and used for medication-assisted recovery of opioid dependence. Eligibility for medication-assisted recovery with methadone is usually contingent on participation in a substance use disorder treatment program. Veterans in the Veteran’s Administration health care system may be eligible for medication-assisted recovery.

What Are Medication-Assisted Recovery Programs?

Medication-assisted recovery programs are clinics that dispense methadone, naltrexone, buprenorphine, and Suboxone. These drugs can help you to quit heroin and other opiates and are provided as part of treatment. This treatment is designed for patients who are now dependent on opiates or who have been dependent on them at some point in the past.

Overall, people who participate in medication-assisted recovery programs may be more successful in quitting heroin than those who do not. People who quit heroin without methadone are more likely to relapse. They also have a higher risk of an overdose after a period of abstinence or lower daily doses.

Methadone is considered a Schedule II opioid painkiller that’s used for pain management as well as opioid substance use disorder. This medicine treats pain and reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms. It’s particularly effective because of its long-acting properties. When the drug is taken in the morning, its effects can last all day.

Patients must report to the clinic daily to receive their dose. Because many clinics are closed on Sunday, however, take-home medication for one day is often provided. Patients may be required to undergo drug testing. They may also be required to attend substance use disorder groups and outside support meetings through organizations like Narcotics Anonymous.

With daily treatment, patients are relieved of opioid withdrawal symptoms as well as the feeling of being “high.” They are able to regain some stability in their lives and to learn new ways of living. All the time and energy that used to be spent finding and using drugs is now free. That energy can be channeled into recovery activities, checking out employment opportunities and spending quality time with friends and family.

How Can I Tell if I’m Addicted?

You know you’re addicted to opiates if you get unpleasant withdrawal symptoms whenever you try to quit. If you’ve been using heroin regularly for six or more months, you may be addicted.

Patients who take methadone may be more successful in quitting heroin than those who don’t. Opiates are highly addictive, and if you’re hooked, your body needs these drugs to function properly. Tapering off gradually under a doctor’s supervision is highly recommended. Going “cold turkey” can produce such intolerable side effects that you set yourself up for a relapse.

People who quit heroin while participating in a drug-assisted treatment program are less likely to relapse. If you’ve been clean for a while, your tolerance will be lower. You could be at risk for an accidental overdose if you resume using.

Methadone maintenance is not a cure for heroin addiction. Rather, it allows you to stabilize yourself and your life so that you can attend to the business of living. A methadone detox at some point in the future may be pursued.

If you want to quit heroin or any other opiate drug, don’t do it alone. Speak with your doctor and if necessary, get help. Many of those with a substance use disorder have quit using heroin and then entered drug rehab for addiction treatment. They now live clean, drug-free lives in recovery without having to use opiates.

Endocarditis & Drug Use

is a serious cardiac condition that can often become life-threatening. The condition occurs when the endocardium, which is the inner lining of the heart, becomes inflamed. Both bacteria and infection can lead to the development of this disease, and it can be either short term or chronic. In cases where the illness is caused by an infection, physicians refer to it as infective endocarditis.

Generally, symptoms of this disease develop when bacteria or infection enters the bloodstream and attaches to the heart valves, triggering inflammation.

What Are the Risk Factors for This Condition?

This condition is relatively rare in healthy individuals. Patients who have heart defects, artificial heart valves or urinary catheters are at an increased risk. Individuals with gum disease, inflammatory bowel disease and any other disease where dangerous bacteria can potentially enter the bloodstream are also at an elevated risk. Certain dental procedures that involve cutting the gums may pose a risk, too.

In addition, individuals who inject illegal drugs face a higher risk. Typically, people who use illegal drugs have difficulty obtaining sterile needles and injection materials. They may share needles with others or use injection practices that are unsafe. For example, they may not be able to find an alcohol swab to disinfect the injection site prior to doing the injection. These practices increase the risk that harmful bacteria will enter the bloodstream. Illegal drugs such as cocaine cause heart damage and this can further elevate the risk in people with substance use issues.

What Are Some Symptoms of Endocarditis?

This illness generally begins with flu-like symptoms. For example, people often present with a fever, chills, fatigue and aching joints or muscles. Swelling of the abdomen, legs or feet may occur, and this is often accompanied by shortness of breath and chest pain during breathing. Less commonly, individuals may have night sweats, unintended weight loss, blood in the urine and pain in the spleen, which is an organ that fights infection. Rarely, people may observe skin changes with this condition. They may develop painful red spots under the skin of the fingers and toes, known as Osler’s nodes, and they may also have red spots on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet, known as Janeway lesions. Tiny red or purple bumps called petechiae may form inside the mouth or on the whites of the eyes, and they can also develop on the skin.

In individuals with substance use issues that involve the injection of illicit drugs, inflammation from endocarditis usually affects the tricuspid valve of the heart. The tricuspid valve is also impacted in cases of long-term intravenous drug use. In cases of substance use involving opioids, the mitral and aortic valves may also be impacted.

How Do Doctors Diagnose This Condition?

Evaluation begins with a health history and a physical examination. The doctor will ask the patient about any personal or family history of cardiovascular disease and substance use, and he or she will also need to have a complete list of all medications that the patient is taking. The clinician will ask the patient if he or she has recently had any procedure that may have allowed bacteria to enter the bloodstream. These procedures include teeth cleanings, dental surgery on the gums, colonoscopies, and bronchoscopies.

At this point, the doctor will begin the physical examination. Cardiac infections can cause bumps on the skin, mouth, and whites of the eyes, so the doctor will shine a light into the patient’s eyes and mouth to check for these. He or she will also visually inspect the patient’s feet and hands to look for signs of Osler’s nodes or other nodules.

One of the key parts of the exam will be the cardiovascular exam. During this portion, the doctor will use a stethoscope to listen to the patient’s heart. To help make it easier for the doctor to detect the types of murmurs and abnormal sounds that are indicative of an infected endocardium, the doctor may listen first with the patient sitting up and a second time with the patient lying down. The doctor may also need to listen to specific heart valves with the patient lying on his or her left side. As part of the cardiac exam, the doctor will check the patient’s blood pressure in both arms, and he or she will check the patient’s pulse at the wrist and at other areas of the body. The doctor will be checking to see whether the patient’s heart rate and rhythm are normal, and special attention will be paid to any signs of potential arrhythmias. The clinician will also listen to the patient’s breathing to check for any signs of a cough or shortness of breath.

During the physical, the doctor will also check the patient’s abdomen and lower limbs. With the patient lying down, the clinician will gently touch several areas of the patient’s abdomen to check for any tenderness, swelling or lumps. Since an infected endocardium can cause pain in the spleen, the doctor will lightly touch this area to check for both pain and potential enlargement of the organ. The doctor may also touch the patient’s lower limbs and ankles to check for the presence of pitting edema or swelling, in this area. The patient will also have his or her temperature measured to see if any fever is present.

If the physical exam results cause the doctor to suspect that the patient may have an infected endocardium, additional tests will be ordered to confirm this. Patients will first have an electrocardiogram, which is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, and a chest X-ray to rule out any lung infections. For a more detailed look at the potential damage to the heart, patients may need to have an echocardiogram. This test is an ultrasound of the heart that uses sound waves to create an image. Where possible, it is done with the probe placed lightly on the skin over the heart. Known as a transthoracic echocardiogram, this form is completely noninvasive and painless.

Occasionally, doctors may need to place the ultrasound probe down the throat and into the esophagus for more imaging. This is called a transesophageal echocardiogram. Doctors will typically perform blood culture tests that involve taking multiple blood samples within a 24-hour period. The samples are then placed in culture bottles to see if any bacteria grow.

How Is Endocarditis Treated?

Generally, antibiotics are the first line of treatment for this illness. Amoxicillin, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, and oxacillin are some of the most commonly prescribed drugs for endocarditis treatment. The patient will typically begin with at least one week of intravenous antibiotics, and he or she will stay in the hospital during this time. Doctors will discontinue the intravenous antibiotics once the inflammation has subsided. After returning home, patients will need to continue taking antibiotics by mouth for up to six weeks. Antibiotics may cause side effects that include nausea, delirium, liver damage, and kidney damage. During hospital treatment, doctors will carefully monitor patients for these and other side effects. While on antibiotics at home, patients should be vigilant for any side effects mentioned in the medication guide and report these to their medical team.

For patients who have chronic or severe cases of an infected endocardium, surgery may be advised. During surgery, doctors will remove any dead tissue, debris or scar tissue that may have formed and damaged the heart valves. If a valve is severely compromised, additional surgery may be needed to try to repair the valve, and surgeons may also be able to replace the valve with an artificial one.

What Are Possible Complications of This Illness?

Even with treatment, there is a risk that this illness may lead to complications. For example, patients who have it may develop pus-filled pockets known as abscesses in the heart, brain or lungs, and the condition can cause a pulmonary embolism or blood clot in the lungs. Other potential complications from the disease include stroke, seizures, damage to the kidneys, heart failure, and heart murmurs.

How Does Substance Use Impact Cardiac Treatment?

Patients who have substance use issues that involve injecting drugs typically have multiple episodes of this condition, especially if they continue having untreated substance use issues. Conservative treatments, including antibiotics, may not work as well in these patients; they may require stronger antibiotics or higher doses. Treatment time with antibiotics may have to be extended for longer than the standard six weeks. In many cases, patients with substance use may have such extensive damage from cardiac infections that surgery is needed.

Depending on how advanced a patient’s heart condition is, simply repairing a valve may not work, and valve replacements may be needed. Sometimes, patients with substance use issues need to have multiple heart valve replacements due to extensive cardiac damage. Additionally, due to the surgical risks that substance use may pose, it is not uncommon for some hospitals and surgery centers to refuse to perform cardiac surgery for patients who have substance use issues.

Studies have shown that substance use substantially increases the risk of death from this illness. In a recent study of patients in London, Ontario, 55 percent of patients who had infected heart valves also had substance use issues that involved injecting drugs. One-third of these patients later died as a result of their infection.

Can It Be Prevented?

One of the most important things people can do to prevent endocarditis is to avoid intravenous drug use. In addition, patients who are having dental surgery or other medical procedures should speak with their health care team about taking a preventative course of antibiotics in advance of their procedure. If prescribed, patients should take the entire course of antibiotics exactly as directed. To further reduce their risk, people should avoid body piercings and tattoos, and they should have regular professional dental checkups and cleanings.

How Can People With Substance Use Issues Reduce Their Risk and Complications?

Canadian research from 2018 suggests that surgery can reduce the risk of death from this heart condition by 56 percent. Patients who had substance use counseling while they were in the hospital were able to reduce their risk of mortality by 72 percent. Experts suggest that the most important thing a person with substance use can do to protect themselves from this dangerous cardiac condition is to have treatment for substance use.

What Substance Use Treatment Options Are Available for Those With Cardiac Conditions?

People who have cardiac conditions can use the same treatment services that are available to anyone else with substance use issues. Since infection of the endocardium is a serious disease, individuals are advised to attend a medically supervised detox program. These programs are held at residential facilities, and people are provided with both medical and psychological support.

As part of the treatment process, patients will go through withdrawal. This process rids the body of all traces of any substances, and it can typically take around one week. During this time, patients will have their vital signs monitored regularly, and they will be given medications to help ease pain, nausea, shaking and other symptoms that may occur during the withdrawal process.

Counseling is provided during treatment, and this typically takes place in both individual and group therapy sessions. Patients may also have family therapy sessions. Cognitive behavioral therapy, contingency management, and motivational enhancement therapy are a few of the psychological techniques often used. These techniques help patients reframe their thoughts, develop healthy coping mechanisms and learn to observe their urges without acting on them.

Individuals with heart conditions and substance use issues may require additional monitoring during and after substance use treatment. People should try to educate themselves about their health conditions, and they should watch for and immediately report any signs of heart issues such as chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, shaking or fast heart rate. People should take all medications as prescribed, and they should be completely honest with all medical staff about any health issues they may be experiencing. With the right medical interventions and appropriate substance use treatment and support, many individuals can live full lives in recovery.

How Heroin Kills You

The U.S. is facing a dangerous health crisis. Rates of heroin use and overdoses haven’t been so high since the 1970s. In 2017, more than 70,000 Americans died as a result of a drug overdose. Approximately 47,600 of those deaths were opioid-related fatalities, and 15,482 were heroin overdoses. Even these high statistics may not tell the whole story because they don’t count the deaths of people in states who don’t specify the drug on the death certificate after an overdose. Nor do the statistics take into account the drug users who died from exposure to the cold because they were too high to go indoors in below-zero temperatures or the individuals who committed suicide while they were on drugs.

It’s easy to think of heroin and other drugs as only affecting marginalized populations in poor neighborhoods with gangs and drug dealers. In reality, heroin use and overdoses affect all strata of American society from blue-collar employees to wealthiest celebrities. Even if you don’t believe that heroin overdoses directly impact your life, you’re at an increased likelihood of being indirectly affected by the heroin epidemic going on in the country. Communities with high levels of drug addiction tend to have the less educational achievement and more crime. Long-term heroin users at risk of an overdose not only do harm to themselves but to their friends and family as well.

How People Get Hooked on Heroin

Heroin is an opioid derived from morphine. The populations most susceptible to death from a heroin overdose are long-term users who suffer from a heroin addiction.

The initial decision to use heroin may not be a behavioral flaw. Heroin addiction is a sickness in which the brain becomes dependent on increasing levels of the drug to function even as it causes neurological breakdown and other physical symptoms. Sometimes, heroin addiction can spring from the overzealous prescription of painkillers. Heroin bought off the street is much cheaper than prescription drugs, so prescription pill addicts may turn to heroin to continue to get the high they felt before. Another reason for continued heroin use is to stave off the physically devastating side effects of withdrawal from the drug.

People addicted to heroin may have difficulty stopping their drug use and relapse often because heroin affects the dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a special chemical that makes pleasurable feelings radiate through the body. In short, heroin makes the user feel good. However, continued heroin use dulls the ability of the dopamine receptors to experience the same amount of pleasure from the drug. Over time, the user requires more and more heroin to get the same high. Eventually, the addicted individual consumes more heroin than their body can handle, oftentimes resulting in death. Many factors affect heroin addiction such as the individual’s environment, genetic makeup and whether they started drug use at an early age.

Heroin overdoses indirectly affect other individuals, especially children, and teenagers. Children who grow up observing heroin addiction and who have relatives who have overdosed on heroin are more likely to use the drug themselves. Starting any kind of drug use at an early age affects critical decision-making skills, learning, and judgment. Younger drug users are less likely to decline heroin when it’s offered and more likely to move on to heroin from a gateway drug like marijuana.

Indicators of a Heroin Addiction

As the common prerequisite for heroin overdose is an addiction to the drug, it’s beneficial to know the signs and symptoms of a heroin addict. Some symptoms are common among addicts, such as manipulation, lying, stealing, avoidance of family and friends and unexplained disappearances. Other symptoms include long sleeves to hide track marks from repeated injections, missing belts or shoelaces, trails of white powder, burnt spoons and missing prescription medications. If you notice valuable items in your house going missing at the same time, your loved one might be selling them for heroin. Belts and shoelaces go missing because the addict uses them to tie their arm and prep a vein for injection. Spoons get burnt when an addict puts the heroin in the spoon and slowly burns it with a flame to ready the substance for intravenous ingestion. If you see any of these signs, do your best to obtain and carry naloxone with you so that you can save your loved one from overdosing should that occur.

Signs of a Heroin Overdose

It’s important to know the signs of an overdose so that you can help the affected person. The U.S. Surgeon General has recommended that relatives of known heroin addicts carry naloxone, an anti-overdose drug that can save lives.

Heroin can be ingested in multiple ways. It can be taken orally or injected under the skin or into muscles. Smoking and injecting heroin are the most dangerous methods because the drug enters the bloodstream more quickly and the effect is felt almost immediately. Sometimes, it may be difficult to know the root cause of a heroin addict’s death. Repeated injections can lead to deadly communicable diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Advanced cardiovascular disease can result in pulmonary embolisms and instant death.

It’s very important not to confuse signs of an overdose with signs of heroin withdrawal. Administering naloxone during heroin withdrawal can be deadly. Signs of withdrawal include agitation, insomnia, sweating, muscle pain and a craving for the drugs. This means that a friend or relative in withdrawal will be complaining of pain, awake for hours and hours on end, and exerting his or her best efforts to find more heroin to use.

In contrast, signs of overdosing are drastically different. Someone about to die from too much heroin intake will have difficulty breathing and take shallow breaths. This means that brain stem function is decreasing. The pupils will become very small, a condition is known as pinpoint pupils. The mouth becomes so dry that the tongue becomes discolored. The pulse becomes weaker and weaker, and as the body is deprived of oxygen, the skin and lips begin to turn blue. In some cases, the individual could enter a comatose state before death. If you see an individual exhibiting these symptoms such as gasping for air with a discolored tongue, bluish lips and pinpoint pupils, you should administer naloxone. It could save their life.

What Happens to the Body During a Heroin Overdose?

Heroin’s route upon its entrance into the body’s bloodstream takes it right to the individual’s brain. In the brain, it is converted into morphine and binds to the brain’s mu-opioid receptors. Mu-opioid receptors are located in the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The binding of morphine to the cerebral and cerebellar receptors is what causes slurred speech, slowed movement, delayed reactions and outbursts of uncontrolled violence from poor impulse control. However, when there is too much heroin, the converted morphine binds to the receptors in the brain stem. The brain stem is responsible for automatic breathing. When the brain stem is compromised, the individual enters into a state of severe respiratory depression and ceases to breathe. Respiratory arrest can lead to cardiac arrest. That’s how heroin kills you.

Intervening Factors in Deaths From a Heroin Overdose

Knowing how heroin kills you may help save you or someone else from an overdose. Unfortunately, naloxone may not always work. Sometimes, heroin overdose is the secondary cause of death, not the primary one. Many heroin users are abusing other drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine or prescription drugs.

Another intervening factor is a reluctance to seek medical help and attention. Even if you were doing drugs or committing illegal activity while your friend or relative was overdosing, don’t use that as an excuse to avoid calling the authorities. Many states now have Good Samaritan fatal overdose protection laws. These laws are a special form of legislation that allows individuals to call police and ambulance services without being subject to arrest or imprisonment. Statistics show that one of the most common reasons for failing to call 911 is fear of arrest by the police.

How You Can Help Prevent Heroin Overdose-Related Fatalities

Carrying naloxone and learning how to inject it is the quickest and surest way to help someone suffering from a heroin overdose. If you don’t have naloxone and you believe that someone is overdosing or entering respiratory distress, call 911 immediately. Explain the symptoms to the 911 operator in detail. Be sure to tell the 911 operator the victim’s weight, age, the amount of heroin they took if you can, and when they took it. An ambulance will come and take the affected person to the emergency room.

People who don’t regularly use drugs might not know what heroin actually looks like. Drug addicts can be manipulative and try to convince their loved ones that they’re not actually doing heroin. One of the ways that heroin kills you and the people close to you is through ignorance. Heroin is a white, brown or cream-colored powder that is cut with sugar or powdered milk to make it more palatable than its purer form, which is quite bitter. As powdered heroin looks very similar to powdered sugar or crushed candy, it’s important to keep very small children away from the presence of heroin users and out of users’ homes. For children, the oral ingestion of heroin, even in small quantities, can lead to a fatal overdose. The darker form of heroin, known as “black tar,” is the type of heroin that’s injected.

At the emergency room, try to be a supportive presence. Overdosing can be a scary experience, not just for the person witnessing but for the person going through it as well. Emergency room doctors will probably run diagnostic tests like CAT scans, blood tests, and ECGs. Treatment options include intravenous fluids, naloxone and breathing support with oxygen therapy. Feel free to ask the doctors and nurses questions about follow-up care and treatment at home. If treated quickly, patients can be discharged after 24 to 48 hours in the hospital. Longer hospital stays occur when the heroin has caused significant organ damage. Some hospitals have programs in which the drug user can go from the hospital directly to a private rehab facility if they have health insurance. While overdosing can be scary, it just might be the “rock bottom” situation that an addict needs to push them into getting help for good.

Another way you can help is by getting educated. Familiarize yourself with the symptoms of heroin use, withdrawal from the drug and overdosing. Support your loved ones in their fight against addiction. You can’t fight their battles for them, but you can encourage them to go to inpatient or outpatient rehab and get clean. Let them know that they’re not alone in their fight and that getting clean is possible. Through proper care in the right treatment center, your loved one can kick their heroin habit and become sober.

Drugged Driving Statistics

Driving under the influence is one of the most preventable crimes in the United States. Especially in the age of ride-hailing services and apps, it’s easy to avoid drugged or drunk driving, yet statistics from the Bureau of Transportation report that three people are killed in alcohol-related crashes every two hours. In the same survey, the Bureau cites that in 2010, 4 million American adults said they’d driven drunk at least once.

Many people are aware of the effects that alcohol and illicit drugs can have on the human body, but many legal and doctor-prescribed drugs also affect a person’s driving ability, making accidents far more likely to occur. If there is any intoxicant present in a person’s body, they are considered to be driving under the influence. Not only is it illegal to drive high or drunk, possibly resulting in getting a DUI citation or arrest, but it’s also incredibly dangerous. Drugged driving can bring harm to more than just the user, and the ramifications of doing so can have an impact on many people’s lives.

What Is Drugged Driving?

Drugged driving is driving under the influence of any intoxicant whatsoever. Alcohol and marijuana use are two of the leading causes of DUIs in the United States, but drugged driving is not limited just to these two substances. Illegal drugs like heroin, methamphetamine, LSD and cocaine significantly impair someone’s ability to drive, and prescribed pharmaceuticals of any sort can do the same. Even some store-bought or over-the-counter medications can alter a person’s consciousness enough to turn driving into a more dangerous activity.

Most people know the moral and legal consequences of drunk driving, but they may be unaware that even medication prescribed by a doctor can result in an accident or DUI if misused. It’s wise to ask your doctor if a medication that he or she prescribes to you will affect your ability to drive, and, if so, how long after taking it you have to wait before you can operate a vehicle.

Drugged or drunk driving is a common occurrence in some people’s lives. Many believe that just one drink or one hit of pot won’t affect their driving ability, but even a small amount of alcohol or drugs in the body can be enough to alter someone’s motor abilities and reaction times. Statistics from a 2013 – 2014 Governors Highway Safety Association roadside survey indicate that nearly 22 percent of all weekend drivers were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This number could be much higher, however, as it’s substantially more challenging to test drivers for drug use than for alcohol in roadside conditions.

How Many Accidents Are Caused by Drugged Driving Each Year?

In 2016, 20.7 million drivers drove under the influence of some substance, and 11.8 million of them were under the influence of something other than alcohol. Every year, millions of people are arrested for drugged driving. A survey by the GHSA reported that 44 percent of drivers involved in fatal traffic accidents were under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Not all of these drugs were considered illicit; over-the-counter drugs and doctor-prescribed pharmaceuticals were also accounted for in these statistics.

State law enforcement agencies are having a challenging time adjusting to changing marijuana laws. Though still illegal on a federal level, many states have legalized pot for medicinal or recreational use. With marijuana use increasingly becoming legalized throughout the United States, the rate of drugged driving accidents each year has increased. From 2007 to 2014, states saw a 48 percent increase in drivers testing positive for THC, the psychoactive compound contained in marijuana.

How Do Drugs and Alcohol Affect a Driver?

Every drug, including alcohol, affects a person’s ability to drive a vehicle, but not every intoxicating substance goes about this in the same way. Each substance changes various aspects of the brain and other bodily systems, making driving dangerous because of the possibility to react differently than while sober.

Alcohol, for instance, affects drivers’ central nervous systems by limiting activity in the brain’s neocortex and cerebellum. These parts of the brain are responsible for high-level decision making, coordination, and motor skills. Alcohol greatly reduces these systems’ ability to function, resulting in blurred or doubled vision, slurred speech, impaired balance and the possibility of blacking out, to name a few symptoms.

Marijuana affects different parts of the brain that respond to the plant’s cannabinoids. Memory loss, paranoia, hallucinations and a loss of coordination are some symptoms of pot use that may cause a driver to weave in and out of lanes, not respond to traffic lights or signs, or briefly lose consciousness, all of which can be incredibly dangerous when operating a vehicle.

Opiates, a widespread class of medication that has both prescribed varieties, i.e., Oxycodone, Oxycontin, Dilaudid and Vicodin, as well as illicit forms like heroin and fentanyl, affect a person’s brain differently than alcohol and marijuana. However, symptoms like memory loss and incredibly marked drowsiness can cause a driver’s abilities to become significantly impaired. Other illegal drugs like methamphetamine or cocaine can cause a person to become agitated, aggressive and reckless, to name only some of their effects. A driver under the influence of these or any other illicit drugs can cause injury or death to themselves or others.

Many people who drive drunk have other intoxicants in their systems. These substances can combine to create an even stronger effect on the user, so anyone driving intoxicated is substantially more likely to cause a potentially fatal accident.

Who Are the Most at Risk for Drugged Driving?

Anyone who drinks or uses any form of drugs and then chooses to drive is at risk of getting into a severe accident. However, men are much more likely than women to be involved in an accident involving drugs or alcohol. In 2010, men committed four out of every five DUIs, and 32 percent of these belonged to males between the ages of 21 and 34.

Another group that’s more at risk than others is those who engage in drug or alcohol use on a regular basis. People who binge drink, which is having more than five drinks in a setting for men or four drinks for women, are more likely to find themselves behind the wheel of a car more often, resulting in a much higher rate of accidents. This group was responsible for over 80 percent of drunk driving accidents in 2010.

Teens are especially susceptible to drugged driving. Their lack of experience with driving as well as with drug and alcohol use results in a particularly deadly combination. Teens exhibit less regard for speed limits and safe driving habits than adults, and drugs and alcohol can especially exacerbate this behavior. Car crashes are the leading cause of death for teens between the ages of 16 and 19. According to a 2016 survey by the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 12 percent of high school seniors reported driving under the influence of marijuana while 9 percent said they’d driven drunk.

Some people believe that they have a high tolerance for liquor or drugs and therefore are better suited to drive a car inebriated. This belief, however, is not true. Any amount of alcohol or drugs in a person’s system can result in a DUI or arrest by the police. The legal blood alcohol content, or BAC, limit in most states is .08  although a police officer can arrest anyone who’s showing signs of intoxication even if their BAC is below that percentage.

What Are the Penalties for Drugged Driving?

The most significant penalty that can occur because of drugged or drunk driving is causing death to yourself or others. Vehicles of any sort can turn into deadly weapons if operated by a driver who’s drunk or high. It’s for this reason that every state has strict laws regarding DUIs and DWIs.

Sixteen states have zero tolerance laws making it illegal for any measurable amount of a drug to be present in a driver’s system while operating a vehicle. Seven states have “per se” laws that make it illegal for any measurable amount of drugs to be in a person’s body outside the legal limits. States are also making more specific regulations regarding the parameters and legality of marijuana use.

Penalties for breaking these laws can be strict. Citations, arrests, jail or prison time, hefty fines, DUI classes, and rehab are just some of the punishments a person convicted of drugged driving can expect if they are pulled over or involved in an accident.

How Can Drugged Driving Be Prevented?

There are many ways to prevent drugged driving. The simplest and by far the most effective way is to never get behind the wheel when you’re under the influence of any substance whatsoever. If you’ve had anything to drink or you’ve consumed any intoxicant, find a designated driver to take you home. A ride-hailing or taxi service can take you where you need to go without you having to drive at all. If you’re in addiction recovery, it’s strongly suggested that you avoid going to places or events where alcohol and drugs are readily available.

It’s also important to not let anyone you know drive drunk or high. If you see a friend about to drive in this state, and if you’re not under the influence of anything, offer to take them where they need to go or get a taxi for them. Even if you’re not intoxicated, it’s important to pay attention to the road when you’re driving, especially on popular drinking days like the weekends and holidays. Always be sure to wear your seat belt.

Despite alcohol being legal to purchase by anyone over 21, the legal status of most drugs varies considerably. Marijuana is legal in only some states and still illegal on the federal level. Doctor-prescribed drugs, especially opiates, are highly controlled and illegal to use without a prescription. Illicit drugs, which include but are not limited to heroin, cocaine, fentanyl, LSD, inhalants, and methamphetamine, are entirely illegal no matter the state. Using these drugs can result in DUIs, injuries or fatal accidents.

Drugs and alcohol can significantly inhibit your ability to drive. With many states legalizing marijuana use, and with more and more people using it, drivers need to be aware of the risks that can come from drugged driving. With more ways available to people to travel without driving under the influence, drugged driving is more avoidable now than it ever has been.

Medications to Reverse Heroin Overdose

Heroin is a highly addictive illegal opioid derived from morphine. Used to produce feelings of euphoria, the drug takes a toll on individuals, their families, and society. It contributes to crime and violence, and it creates problems in work and educational settings. One study estimates that heroin use costs at least $51,000 for each user annually, which equates to $51 billion for the entire United States.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says almost 500,000 people in the U.S. reported using heroin in 2017. That same year, 15,000 people died from drug overdoses involving heroin, a death rate that was five times higher in 2017 than in 2010. The states with the highest percentages of heroin deaths were California, Illinois, and Virginia.

There are medications that can help those struggling with both heroin use and overdose.

How Is a Heroin Overdose Treated?

Heroin can be deadly. A large dosage depresses breathing and heart rate so much that a person cannot survive without medical intervention. When help arrives in time, there are medical treatments that can reverse or stop an overdose. They include:

Polyethylene glycol can sometimes be used to flush an overdose of heroin from the body. Although it is usually prescribed as a laxative for severe constipation, it can also flush opioids that have not been metabolized from the system. It may not work in large doses, however.

Naloxone is an old medication that has become more popular in recent years because of the opioid and heroin addiction crisis. It is a mainstay in emergency rooms where it is used to stop a heroin overdose. It is also given to first responders and police officers to give to people who have taken too much heroin. Individuals and families are also trained to administer the medication if a loved one takes an overdose.

Naloxone works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as opioids. Because it binds more quickly than heroin, it stops the body from reacting to the heroin, ending the deadly effects of the overdose. It may not work when an individual has taken a massive amount of heroin.

It also leaves the body faster than heroin, meaning the heroin can stay in the system after the naloxone is metabolized. If this happens, the overdose may return. That is why it is important to call for emergency medical help after administering the naloxone.

Studies are being done to see if naloxone can also be used to treat heroin abuse and addiction. Although more research is needed, it may be helpful as a therapy for tapering people off an opioid addiction. Its ability to stop heroin’s effects in the brain could potentially help with withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Nalmefene is routinely used to stop or reverse the effects of alcohol poisoning. Because it binds to the same receptors in the brain that heroin does, it can treat heroin overdoses. Studies suggest that it can also quickly reverse the effects of heroin overdose. It may, in fact, be more effective for treating overdoses than naloxone, but it has only been approved for use in hospitals. It does not work for symptoms of cocaine withdrawal.

Buprenorphine, known by its brand name as Suboxone, is prescribed to help with withdrawal symptoms and cravings. Patients can take the drug at home to decrease the risk of a heroin overdose.

Are There Safe Natural Alternatives?

A controversial alternative called kratom is an herbal supplement derived from the same botanical family as coffee and gardenia. It comes from tropical evergreen trees in Southeast Asia. Its leaves can be smoked, chewed, as well as made into a tea, extract, or capsule. Its effects can be felt at low doses, and euphoria occurs at higher doses. Kratom has been used for hundreds of years but has been made illegal in some Asian countries. It is also illegal in some states in the U.S.

In the past, kratom has been used in the U.S. to relieve pain and reduce opiate withdrawal, but its effectiveness and safety have been questioned. In 2018, the FDA said that it has no scientific evidence of its use for medical reasons. The FDA also says that kratom should not be used as an alternative treatment for opioid addiction.

In 2018, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an outbreak of kratom-linked salmonella infections in 20 states. No deaths were reported, but 11 people were hospitalized. The supplement had been consumed in teas, pills, and powder. Officials were not able to find the source of the tainted kratom. The supplement may also have dangerous pesticide residue and unsafe additives.

How Is Heroin Addiction Treated?

Substance use disorder is a chronic condition, but medications can be prescribed to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms, making it easier for users to stay sober. Each person’s treatment is tailored to individual needs and takes into consideration other illnesses and health issues that occur at the same time as the addiction. Treatments for heroin use disorder may include medications, behavioral therapy, or a combination of the two.

Studies show that treating heroin use disorder with medication helps to keep people in a treatment program. It also helps to decrease drug use, reduce criminal activity, and lessen the risk of transmitting infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV.

People who give up heroin often have severe withdrawal symptoms that include nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Medications can ease the detox process and make relapse less likely.

Behavioral therapy may take place in outpatient or residential environments. To reinforce and encourage sobriety, treatments may rely on reward systems or cognitive-behavioral therapy, which teaches ways of coping with stress and dealing with relapse.

Some programs also use the 12-step system or other kinds of support groups to encourage patients and give them an opportunity to share their feelings. Every treatment should be tailored to fit the specific needs of an individual patient.

What Drugs Are Used to Treat Heroin Addiction?

Medications used to treat heroin and other opioid use disorders use the same opioid receptors as the drug that causes the addiction, but they are safer and less likely to lead to behavioral problems than the opioid. Three kinds of medications are used to treat addictions. They include:

  • Agonists

Agonists activate opioid receptors.

  • Partial agonists

Partial agonists activate opioid receptors, but they create a smaller response.

  • Antagonists

Antagonists block the opioid receptors, but they also change the reward effects of the addictive drug.

The type of medication used to treat a specific patient depends on their individual needs. Treatment centers use three types of drugs:


Methadone is sold under the brand names Dolophine or Methadose. It is an opioid agonist that is taken by mouth so that it reaches the brain slowly to lower the risk of a high. It has been used since the 1960s to treat heroin addicts, and it can be effective for individuals not helped by other medications. Methadone must be administered through an approved daily treatment plan.

Methadone also has the following benefits:

  • It is not likely to cause an overdose.
  • Methadone maintenance gives the patient an opportunity to stay stable long enough to make constructive changes.
  • Doses are only required once a day or less.
  • It cuts down on health problems, such as injection-related infections and vein problems.
  • Methadone is more affordable than heroin.

The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Foundation says that methadone treatment is more effective if it is part of a comprehensive program. These types of programs combine methadone maintenance with counseling, support groups, and alternative therapies.


Buprenorphine is sold under the brand name Subutex. Buprenorphine helps to relieve heroin cravings but does not produce the highs or side effects of other opioids. It is taken sublingually, or orally, and contains an antagonist called naloxone that keeps an addict from getting high if they inject the buprenorphine. If a heroin user injects Subutex, the naloxone causes withdrawal symptoms not caused when the drug is taken by mouth.

Buprenorphine has the following benefits:

  • It is less likely to cause physical dependence or euphoria.
  • It has a mild withdrawal when compared to heroin.
  • It lessens cravings and has a lower risk of abuse.
  • It suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms.
  • It cuts down on illegal opioid use.
  • It blocks the effects of other opioids.

Buprenorphine, approved by the FDA in 2002, was the first drug that could be prescribed by certified doctors through the Drug Addiction Treatment Act. This made it possible for patients to take medication without visiting a treatment center. Buprenorphine availability has given many people the opportunity to get the treatment they need.

In 2016, the law was expanded with the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act, or CARA, to include eligible physician assistants and nurse practitioners. There are two FDA-approved generic forms of the drug, making it more affordable and more widely available for the people who need it. In 2016, the FDA approved a buprenorphine implant that lasts six months and an injection that is taken once a month.


Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist licensed under the brand name Vivitrol. It prevents the effects of heroin, does not sedate, is not addictive, and does not cause physical dependence. However, it is sometimes not effective because patients have trouble following the treatment. An injectable long-acting version of the medication came out in 2010, allowing patients to be treated monthly rather than through daily doses.

Naltrexone has the following benefits:

  • It can be prescribed by any health care provider with a license to write prescriptions.
  • It reduces cravings.
  • It decreases reaction to drug-conditioned cues.
  • There is less risk of withdrawal than with opioids.

What Happens After Treatment for Addiction or Overdose?

Individuals who have a long-term problem with heroin, or those who overdose on the drug, recover more quickly and experience fewer relapses when they undergo treatment in a residential facility. Trained caregivers and medical professionals can monitor the use of prescribed medications and daily activities, but the stay also gives people a chance to take a break from the stress and temptations they face in their daily lives. Therapy usually includes medication, counseling, and information that offer support, encouragement, and skills for avoiding relapse and returning to a normal lifestyle.

If you or someone you love has a problem with heroin, there is help available. Heroin addiction is a chronic condition that requires lifetime maintenance, but the rate of relapse is similar to that of medical conditions like type 2 diabetes. Recovery requires commitment and lifestyle changes, but it is worth the effort.

America’s Heroin Epidemic

How does taking opioids make someone feel? We usually avoid asking this question when discussing recreational drug use because nobody wants to encourage drug experimentation, let alone drug addiction. When the topic is addressed, it’s easy for people to assume that only weak-minded, reckless people turn to drugs.

Sadly, not many people are prepared to understand that drug addiction, particularly heroin and opioid addiction, has risen to epidemic proportions. America’s heroin epidemic affects all of us. It could be your significant other, your neighbor or even your child. No one ever thinks that it can happen to them or someone they love. However, heroin addiction doesn’t discriminate.

Dating back to the 1990s, pharmaceutical companies claimed that patients taking certain opioid medications would not become addicted. As such, health care providers began prescribing opioids for everything from sprained ankles to post-partum pain control. With this increased rate of opioid prescriptions, it slowly became clear that these types of medications were highly addictive and often led to substance abuse issues. As addiction levels rise, so does the need to understand that opioids, legally or illegally, led the U.S. to its current heroin epidemic.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC, estimates that the economic burden brought about by prescription opioid and heroin use comes in at $78.5 billion. This figure includes addiction treatment, the cost of health care, legal expenses and lost productivity.

Understanding the Epidemic

The opioid epidemic has been described as the deadliest drug crisis in American history. According to the CDC, more than 115 people die from opioid overdoses every day.

People used to think that only unemployed people from broken homes turned to heroin to escape reality. No longer is opioid use limited to low-income areas; it has transcended into all geographic areas, affecting people of all ages and ethnicities. Now, the faces of heroin addiction include veterans who cannot find work after leaving the military, moms who needed pain relief after giving birth and even people who had oral surgery.

Many people who become addicted to heroin do not have a prior history of substance misuse. Substance use disorder is not linear or predictable. Some people who were introduced to drugs through prescription pain relievers end up on heroin. Health care officials say that the ever-increasing abuse of prescribed painkillers leads users to the street when they no longer can obtain the drug legally. Unfortunately, because heroin is so addictive, it leads to increased drug-seeking behavior.

Those who misuse the drug and become addicted look for a stronger and possibly cheaper high. Heroin is both, but it is also deadly. It can be laced with other drugs that cause death. Deaths from heroin overdose doubled between 2010 and 2012. The death toll also increased dramatically in 2014 when heroin mixed with fentanyl became more common. Fentanyl, when combined with heroin, is lethal. Users can die within seconds of ingestion.

Although the issue is multifaceted, drug makers and physicians play a key role in this epidemic. After all, if there were no pharmaceutical opioids, physicians wouldn’t be able to prescribe them. That is not to say that they are responsible for another person’s substance use disorder, but the snowballing effect of prescription drug use and not being able to gain access to them has led many Americans to heroin.

Veterans and Heroin Use

Veterans have also been affected by America’s opioid epidemic. Untreated chronic pain has led many veterans to seek out pain relief on the street. After being discharged from their service, some veterans find themselves unemployed and homeless. Depression and the need to escape create the perfect backdrop for substance use disorders. According to the VA, it is estimated that 68,000 veterans are currently struggling with opioid use disorders, and when they can no longer gain access to prescription pain medication legally, they may turn to heroin.

Heroin’s Effects

Heroin can be snorted, injected or swallowed. The speed at which heroin reaches the brain depends on the method taken. Users who inject heroin can feel its high within seven to eight seconds. Astonishingly, not all first-time users experience the feeling of euphoria we hear about. Since heroin slows down the digestive tract, some users may become nauseated and vomit.

Many users report that the high they experience is similar to the feeling after a satisfying sexual encounter, only much more intense. It is this sensation that drives users back to the drug. The brain cells that are affected by heroin eventually become damaged, causing the inability to feel pleasure without heroin. In turn, these cells create the intense craving heroin users have. Unfortunately, the more that individuals take the drug, the larger amounts they need to achieve a high. Often, users become convinced that they can’t function normally without the drug.

Symptoms of Heroin Addiction

It is not surprising that an estimated 23 percent of all people who try heroin will become dependent. The brain’s receptors change almost immediately upon use, leading to an inexplicable high within minutes. Since heroin produces a downer effect, using it produces an almost instantaneous feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Similar to other kinds of opiates, heroin prohibits the brain’s ability to feel pain.

Initially, heroin users can hide the signs of their habit. Over time, family members and co-workers may start to notice the signs of drug use, which include cycles of alertness followed by falling asleep, constricted pupils, rapid behavioral changes and shortness of breath.

The above red flags are not unique to heroin. There are more definitive signs that a heroin user exhibits and these typically include possession of paraphernalia used to prepare the drug. In addition, behavioral changes become more evident as drug users sink further into the substance abuse cycle. Individuals may lie to cover up their addiction and avoid making eye contact. Speech may be incoherent. Performance at work and school may decline, resulting in unemployment or expulsion.

Long-Term Effects of Heroin Use

When someone continues to use heroin despite the deadly consequences, they can develop all kinds of health issues as follows:

Central nervous system

Heroin’s impact on a user’s brain is profound. The receptors that produce chemical signals for happiness and pleasure shrink. People who use heroin for long periods of time also show deterioration of white matter on CT scans of the brain. As such, their ability to make sound decisions and regulate their behavior is altered.

Respiratory system

Like other opiates, heroin slows respiratory function. People who use heroin may breathe much slower and shallower when they are high. If someone uses too much, they may stop breathing. The risk of cardiac arrest is one of the major health risks of heroin. Although it can occur the first time someone uses heroin, chronic users usually need to take higher doses to feel the same effect, which increases the risk of respiratory failure.

Cardiovascular system

Large doses of heroin can cause sudden death. Long-term heroin users also face a slew of other cardiovascular issues including vein damage. With each injection, the damage is done to the veins and arteries that lead to the heart. In turn, infection and abscesses can occur. According to the CDC, approximately 32 percent of heroin users in New York City suffer from a drug-induced abscess.

Digestive system

Heroin can also negatively impact the user’s digestive tract. Its sedative properties slow the movement of food and water, causing constipation and bloating. Users may not disclose these symptoms nor seek treatment, putting them at greater risk for developing intestinal blockages.

What’s Being Done

The FDA believes a multidisciplinary approach to treatment would help bridge the gap between substance use disorders and treatment. Stricter limitation of the frequency and the number of opioid prescriptions would force people to look for alternative ways of pain management, including cognitive therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy.

The CDC has also partnered with many states to combat both opioid addiction and heroin use. By educating the public and setting up safe zones for those who are suffering from addiction, the hope is that users will go to those safe zones to inject or use as opposed to getting high on the street.

The Opioid Crisis Response Act of 2018 marks a breakthrough in the fight against the heroin epidemic in the U.S. Federal action is intended to make people more aware of the crisis and provide resources for those who want to get clean. However, one the largest hindrances to this bill being passed are funding. If the legislation is successful, some pharmaceutical companies could be bankrupt, thus making treatment of other chronic medical conditions more difficult.

Getting Treatment

Behavioral and pharmacological treatment can be effective for heroin users. Comprehensive treatment allows users to remain abstinent and restore a level of normalcy into their lives.

Heroin users must complete a detoxification program prior to entering a long-term treatment program. During detoxification, patients may be given medications to reduce the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, which can include pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Even though the detoxification period is not a treatment for the addiction itself, it is an effective first step.

After detox, many users manage their cravings with medication. Several medications have been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. Since they work on the same receptors as heroin in the brain, they are considered safe and effective. They satisfy cravings while blocking opioid receptors in the brain; even if a user relapses and takes heroin, they would not experience a high, which can help them on their road to recovery.

The most common medication used for recovery is methadone. Taken orally, it is slow-acting and prevents withdrawal symptoms. If the user is not at an inpatient facility, the medication is usually dispensed through an approved outpatient treatment center on a daily basis.

Buprenorphine has also been approved for the treatment of heroin addiction. This medication is only available through certified physicians. However, it also eliminates the need for daily trips to a methadone clinic. Generic options are available, making it a more affordable treatment option.

Getting treatment for any substance use disorder may be frightening and, for some, embarrassing. People with long-standing emotional problems or chronic pain are usually at a higher risk of developing substance use disorders. However, that should never dissuade anyone from asking for help. The good news is that heroin addiction is treatable. The first step is asking for help and admitting that there is a problem. Both inpatient and intensive outpatient treatments are available for those in need.

How Long Does Heroin Stay In Your System?

What Is Heroin?

Heroin is a controlled substance in the United States, and the USDA classifies it as a Class-1 highly addictive drug. It is a plant-based but heavily manufactured and altered opioid drug derived from the poppy flower. Heroin is processed and cut with other substances before it gets to the consumer. Users of the drug typically smoke, snort or inject it intravenously. The immediate effects are feelings of euphoria and sedation.

Health Impacts of Heroin in Your System

Opiate addiction is a significant problem around the world and in recent years, opioid abuse has been on the climb, leading to numerous cases of overdose. These types of drugs have a negative impact on energy levels and sex drive as well as the weight and functions of major organs such as the liver and kidneys.

Most significant, however, is the effect of opiates on brain function. As this drug is used for its effects on brain chemistry, it can cause changes to the way your brain operates and how it sends and receives signals.

In fact, the biggest danger of heroin abuse results from the drug’s ability to block or alter signals in your brain that control important bodily functions. Emergencies from opioid abuse often stem from breathing difficulties associated with overdose. The reason for this is that heroin can change the chemistry of the brain stem and cause depressed breathing.

Parts of your brain control the basic functions of your body, such as breathing and the beating of your heart, so that you don’t have to think about it. Heroin can alter and interrupt these signals that are telling your body to do what it needs to do to survive.

Drug Testing in the USA

In the United States, drug testing is used in many different types of situations. This is a common reason people may ask how long drugs will stay in your system. Many employers require pre-hire drug testing, and some also perform random drug tests on their employees.

Types of Tests

There are several ways to test for opiates and other drugs in the human body. Depending on the type of test performed, heroin can show up on the tests results whether a person has used recently or been abstinent for some time. Here’s a closer look at some of the tests currently in use:


Blood tests are one of the best ways to test for substances in the body, such as prescription or illegal drugs. This is not the most common type of drug test used, however. Blood testing is sometimes used by law enforcement, but it’s most commonly utilized in emergency medicine. In fact, blood testing is rarely used for legal issues and more often for medical diagnostic purposes.

The invasive nature of this test has raised constitutional issues. Of course, blood testing involves taking blood from a person’s body, and this requires either consent or due process of law, including a court order. While blood tests are great for medical purposes to determine what is going on in the body right now, they are not ideal for detecting prior opioid use because opiates may not be picked up in the bloodstream if it’s only been a few hours after use.


The most common type of drug test used in the United States is the urinalysis test. This is the preferred method for employment testing and probation and parole testing. This is because it is a fast and reliable form of testing that is also far cheaper to perform than blood and hair tests. Additionally, there are fewer legal and constitutional concerns when using urinalysis.


Hair testing is not especially common, but it does have a significant history of use in the U.S., primarily in the court systems. This method does have one benefit over other methods: While blood and urine tests have a more limited time frame to work in, hair testing can detect drugs months after their use.


Testing of oral fluid is another somewhat common testing method for illegal and prescription drugs. This method involves using a cheek swab to collect a sample of saliva and other oral fluids. The test works much the same as a blood or urine test and detects the same content as other forms of testing.

The issue with saliva testing is that it can be a less reliable method due to medical conditions or drug side effects that may cause dry mouth. If a good sample can’t be collected, then the test will fail. In certain instances, the very drug being tested for can cause side effects that will negate the saliva test. This type of test isn’t typically the first choice when it comes to heroin detection.

Understanding Half-life

In science, half-life refers to the time it takes for a substance to be reduced by half, either by decay or through elimination within the human body. In medicine, half-life is used in formulas to determine proper doses and duration for treatment. For example, an antibiotic would have to be administered at a certain dose and frequency to ensure that antibodies remain present long enough to effectively fight the bacteria or infection.

The half-life of a drug determines how long the substance will be present and detectable in your body. If you are not a chemistry person, the concept can seem confusing, but it is fairly simple. Essentially, different substances take longer to clear from your body than others.

On one hand, there is the time it takes for the substance to be cleared to the extent that you no longer feel the effects of the drug, and on the other hand, the time it takes for it to not be detectable by tests. As an example, you could take a medication for pain and at the end of its half-life, you may feel your pain return and no longer feel the effects of the drug. However, a blood test would still show the presence of pain medication.

Variables to How Long Heroin Will Stay in Your System


When people ask how long a particular drug will remain in their system, it is not a simple answer that is the same for everyone. The best answer is always going to be a range because not all people are the same and not all drug mixtures are the same. Below are some of the many factors to take into consideration when asking how long a drug will be detectable in your system.


Your age has a lot to do with your metabolism and the way your body processes substances you take in. An older person with a slower metabolism may show the presence of a drug longer than a younger person with a fast metabolism. Additionally, a person who has not yet reached full maturity may process the drug at a different rate than an adult. This is one reason that addiction in youth is of particular concern.


It stands to reason that weight would be a factor in the half-life of heroin and other drugs. Doses for medication are often based on weight. The reason for this is that the dose may need to be larger to have the intended effect on a larger person while a smaller person may get stronger effects from a drug at a smaller dose.

Body Fat

Body fat plays a role in how your body metabolizes what you put into it and how it breaks substances down. Excessive body fat impacts circulation, digestion, and liver and kidney function.


Hydration plays a key role in removing toxins from your body. Good hydration is very effective in reducing the duration of time that drugs can be detected in urine. Using water to clean the urine is so effective that many people will drink large quantities of water in an attempt to pass a drug test. However, many tests will count clear urine as an automatic fail on the assumption that the subject was trying to falsify the results.

Drug Quality

This is one of the biggest variables in determining both the effect of the drug and how long it remains in your system. The fact that heroin is an illegal drug means that supplies are not checked for quality or held to an FDA standard. When using black market products, there is little way to know the purity and strength of the drug itself.

As drugs like cocaine and heroin are cut with other substances, the actual volume of the drug can vary. Think of it in the same way as proof in alcohol terminology. A 4% ABV will have a different effect on your body than a 90% grain alcohol. Similarly, heroin of low purity will break down in your body faster than a higher concentration.

Health Factors

One individual may process heroin in a different way depending on personal health issues. A diabetic, for example, will break things down in the body in different ways and at different rates. A person with blood and circulation issues may also take longer to clear the drug from their body.

Use History

The effect of a particular drug can have a lot to do with a person’s history of use. Consider that a dose for a first-time user may have a much stronger impact than the same dose for someone who has dealt with addiction for many years. One component of drug abuse is the perceived need for more and more as time goes on. Unfortunately, this is what leads to many overdoses.

While a lifelong user may process the drug differently, the bigger issue is their likely increased dosage. If a person is consuming higher and higher amounts to try and get a certain high, the volume in their body will likely take longer to process through the system.

How Long Does Heroin Stay in Your System?

Taking all of the above into account, we are talking about a drug with a very short half-life. In most cases, it will be undetectable in urine after only a couple of days. Blood and saliva tests are especially poor testing methods for heroin. In fact, testing blood and oral fluids may yield a negative result within only five to six hours of taking the drug. The most effective test available for detecting drug use over time is hair follicle testing, which has been reported to detect heroin in the body for up to three months after the last use.

So, when considering how long the drug stays in your system, the answer really depends on the test. You can think of two days and up to three months as the two extremes. However, most tests will only be able to detect heroin in your system for a period of two to seven days.